In the modern era, there is great convergence in the technologies used by friendly nations and by hostile ones. Signals intelligence agencies find themselves penetrating the technologies that they also at times must protect. To ease this tension, the United States and its partners have relied on an approach sometimes called Nobody But Us, or NOBUS: target communications mechanisms using unique methods accessible only to the United States. This paper examines how the NOBUS approach works, its limits, and the challenging matter of what comes next.
International Security is America's leading peer-reviewed journal of security affairs. It provides sophisticated analyses of contemporary, theoretical, and historical security issues. International Security is edited at Harvard University's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and is published by The MIT Press.
The growing debate concerning the soundness and direction of international security policies both in the United States and abroad signals a revival of intellectual ferment as well as intuitive uneasiness. Nations are increasingly defining their security not only in the conventional modes of military strength, economic vigor, and governmental stability, but also in terms of capabilities previously less central: energy supplies, science and technology, food, and natural resources. Two hundred years ago, a new state could secure its sovereignty and well-being through an ill-trained militia and a converted merchant fleet. Today, globalization has forced transnational concerns—such as trade, terrorism, and the environment—to be essential elements in the security considerations of any prospering society.
We view international security as embracing all factors that have a direct bearing on the structure of the nation-state system and the sovereignty of its members, with particular emphasis on the use, threat, and control of force. Our goal is to provide timely analyses of these issues through contributions that reflect diverse points of view and varied professional experiences. This interdisciplinary journal is offered as a vehicle for communication among scholars, scientists, industrialists, military and government officials, and members of the public who bear a continuing concern for this aspect of international life.
International Security offers a combination of professional and policy-relevant articles that we believe will contribute to the analysis of particular security problems. For more than thirty years, we have accommodated the broad range of methodologies and perspectives needed to clarify the various positions tendered in the discussion of international security. Our intent is to balance articles of assessment and opinion with those of analysis and research.
This effort is carried forward as a part of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University. It is our expectation that research articles, reviews, debates, reports, documentation, and commentary, when made available regularly, will contribute to the disciplined discourse that distinguishes a profession.
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To learn more about the journal, please read the article by Steven E. Miller, "International Security at Twenty-five: From One World to Another," International Security, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Summer 2001), pp. 5-39.
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To submit a manuscript to International Security (IS), log on to Editorial Manager, an online manuscript management system used by more than 6,000 journals. You can access the site at http://www.editorialmanager.com/isec.
Please register as an author and follow the instructions for submitting a manuscript. If you have any questions or encounter problems, please let us know by clicking "Contact Editorial Office" in the main navigation bar.
- A length of 10,000 to 15,000 words (including footnotes) is appropriate, but the journal will consider and publish longer manuscripts. Authors of manuscripts with more than 20,000 words should consult the journal's editors before submission.
- Delete your name or any references that might identify you from the manuscript. IS does not release authors' names to outside reviewers and, likewise, does not release reviewers' names to authors.
- Include a cover letter.
- Submit your manuscript as a Word document. Do not send a PDF document.
- Include a summary of 150 to 200 words.
What Is Appropriate for IS?
IS welcomes submissions on all aspects of security affairs. For perspectives on the scope and research agenda of the field, see Joseph S. Nye and Sean M. Lynn-Jones, "International Security Studies: A Report on a Conference on the State of the Field,"International Security, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Spring 1988), pp. 5-27; and Steven E. Miller, "International Security at Twenty-five: From One World to Another," International Security, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Summer 2001), pp. 5-39. For additional information on what kinds of manuscripts that International Security is looking for, see Teresa Johnson, "Writing for International Security: A Contributor’s Guide," International Security, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Fall 1991), pp. 171-180. Authors should not, however, limit themselves to the issues and approaches suggested in these articles.
Before submitting a manuscript to IS or any other journal, look at recent issues to get a sense of the general type of article that the journal publishes. Whenever editors gather to discuss why they reject manuscripts, they agree that the number one reason is that many submissions are inappropriate for their journals.
IS is not looking for short, undocumented papers that consist primarily of opinion and advocacy. Every year we turn away many submissions that fall into this category. We also rarely consider highly technical articles that are unlikely to be accessible to a broad audience.
We are interested in serious analyses of contemporary security policy issues, theoretical and conceptual issues in security studies, and historical questions related to war and peace. We define "security" broadly to include issues related to the causes, conduct, and consequences of wars. The editors rarely decide to seek articles on a particular topic, although from time to time we may look for articles on topics that have not been addressed in recent issues of the journal.
IS publishes articles that fall into four broad categories.
Policy. Analyses of contemporary security policy issues.
Theory. Articles that propose, test, refine, or apply theories of international relations that are relevant to the use, threat, and control of force.
History. Articles that offer new information on or interpretations of historical events.
Technology. Analyses of the scientific and technological dimensions of international security.
Of course, these categories overlap to some extent, but we try to strike a balance among them in selecting articles for publication.
In general, manuscripts are more likely to receive serious consideration if they offer one or more of the following:
Originality. We strongly prefer articles that reach new and interesting conclusions or that offer new information or evidence.
Challenges to the conventional wisdom. Articles that reiterate well known and popular views are less likely to be published than those that challenge the conventional academic or policy wisdom. As one member of the journal's editorial board put it: "If nobody is going to disagree with an article, there's no reason to publish it."
Coverage of important topics. In general, we prefer articles that address broad topics of major interest. For example, we are more likely to publish an article on the future of U.S.-European relations or the prospects for peace in the twenty-first century than one on civil-military relations in a small country.
Long shelf life. We prefer articles that are not likely to be overtaken by current events and that will be read with interest for perhaps a decade or more.
Accessibility to a wide audience. IS aims to publish articles that can be read by intelligent nonspecialists as well as by academic experts in a particular field.
Of course, not every article in IS meets these criteria, but those that do are more likely to receive positive external reviews and favorable consideration by the editors.
IS is published quarterly. Normally, the process of review and publication takes at least eight months; thus, a manuscript submitted in March would ordinarily not appear before the winter issue. Decisions on manuscripts ordinarily take no more than three to four months; the editing and publication process takes between five and six. When authors are asked to revise, the process may take longer.
Policy on Simultaneous Submissions
IS does not object to simultaneous submission of manuscripts to other publications, but we do ask to be informed if a manuscript is under consideration at another journal. We have adopted this policy because we realize that authors often are under pressure to publish quickly and we often take several months to reach a decision.
Policy on Previous Publication
If a manuscript has been published previously or will appear elsewhere soon, its chances of acceptance by IS will probably be reduced. Such issues, however, are handled on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the importance of the topic, the quality of the work, and the attention that it will receive in another publication.
How Often May Authors Publish in IS?
IS has a policy of not publishing any author more than once a year. We occasionally may make exceptions for coauthored articles. This rule does not apply to correspondence submissions.
Simultaneous Submissions to IS?
IS generally prefers only one submission per author at any given time. The editors will occasionally consider simultaneous submissions, but if two or more articles by the same author are accepted, publication of the additional article(s) will be deferred for at least a year.
International Security welcomes correspondence on articles published in the journal. We cannot publish every letter we receive, but we believe that exchanges between article authors and their critics can be interesting and informative. The journal's policy is to offer article authors the opportunity to respond to each letter in the issue in which the letter is published. Letters should be no more than 1,000 words long. The journal attempts to publish letters within a year of the publication of the article to which they respond. Letters should be submitted as soon as possible after publication of an article.
Correspondence can be submitted through Editorial Manager. Please register as an author and follow the instructions for submitting a letter to the editor. If you have any questions or encounter problems, please let us know by clicking "Contact Us" in the main navigation bar.
Book Review Essays
We solicit most of the book review essays in IS. If you want to write a book review essay, please contact us and we will let you know if we are interested. We sometimes receive unsolicited book review essays, and they pass through the normal review process.
How to Propose an Article
If you have a manuscript that you would like to submit to IS but you are unsure whether it is "right" for the journal, email us to ask whether we are interested. Please send a summary of the paper and a description of its length, methods, etc.
Please bear in mind that it is impossible to evaluate manuscripts that we have not seen, but we can tell you whether, for example, we have just accepted another article on the same topic. We can also assess whether the topic and approach are suitable for IS and whether the editors might have a particular interest in considering your paper.
All subscriptions are processed through the journal's publisher, MIT Press. We offer discounts for students and seniors, and all of our print subscriptions include free online access to the journal.
How do I subscribe to International Security?
How can I obtain permission to copy IS articles?
I want to change my mailing address. Do I email you?
No. Please contact MIT Press at email@example.com with all subscription changes, including updates to your mailing address.
What is the relationship between IS, the Belfer Center, and MIT Press?
The Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University is IS’s editorial headquarters. The editorial staff based at the Belfer Center is responsible for selecting and editing articles. In addition to housing IS, the Belfer Center runs research programs on international security, the environment, technology, and public policy. Belfer Center research fellows often contribute to IS while they are in residence, but IS is not a "house journal" for the Belfer Center. We welcome and encourage submissions from all authors.
As the journal's publisher, MIT Press handles the typesetting, printing, and mailing of the journal, as well as advertising, subscription inquiries, and copyright issues.
Why does IS publish articles with large numbers of footnotes?
IS encourages authors to cite their sources fully and to provide bibliographical footnotes that list references on a particular topic for three reasons.
First, it is standard scholarly practice to provide documentation to indicate the source of information or to credit another writer for having made a particular argument. As a scholarly journal, IS makes every effort to follow such practices.
Second, much of the information in the field of international security studies is subject to dispute. Governments have strong incentives to manipulate information. Militaries and intelligence organizations often believe they need to conceal data. By providing citations to the sources of their information, IS articles allow readers to judge for themselves whether the information is reliable.
Third, footnotes with numerous citations to other articles and books can help readers to pursue further research on a particular topic. IS articles are assigned in many university courses, so we encourage authors to include brief guides to the literature in their footnotes.
What type of article is IS looking for?
Please see our submission guidelines.
Do I have to be a "big name" to publish in IS?
No. Many authors published in IS are prominent in their fields, but the journal publishes articles on the basis of the manuscript's merits, not the author's credentials. Manuscripts are circulated anonymously for external review. Many of the "big names" featured in back issues were graduate students when they first published in IS. Being a "big name" does not guarantee publication in IS. Although it would be unfair to reveal their names, we have rejected numerous articles submitted by prominent scholars.
How long should an IS submission be?
A length of 10,000 to 15,000 words (including footnotes) is appropriate, but the journal will consider and publish longer manuscripts. Authors of manuscripts with more than 20,000 words should consult the journal's editors before submission.
Does IS commission or solicit articles?
IS rarely commissions articles. In some cases, however, IS will solicit replies to particularly controversial articles. For example, when IS accepted John Mearsheimer's winter 1994/95 article, "The False Promise of International Institutions," the editors solicited replies that later appeared in the summer 1995 issue. By organizing such sections, we offer authors an opportunity to defend their work and ensure that the exchange appears in a single issue where readers can examine all of the various arguments.
Does IS publish book reviews?
Yes, IS does occasionally publish review essays. Most of the book review essays are solicited, but we welcome proposals. Contact us via email if you are interested in reviewing a particular book or books.
How does the review process work?
One or more editors read each manuscript that IS receives. If the manuscript appears suitable for the journal, it is sent to two or three external reviewers.
The review process is doubly blind: the author should remove all identifying references from the manuscript before submission, and we provide anonymous comments to the author when the review is returned. Reviews are only sent to authors when they offer useful and constructive comments.
Manuscripts that receive positive external reviews are circulated to all of the journal's editors (Steven Miller, Owen Coté, Sean Lynn-Jones, and Diane McCree), who then select those that will be published from this short list of leading contenders. We repeat this process for each issue; few articles are accepted and then held over as part of a backlog for publication in a future issue. This policy ensures that we accept only the very best of each group of leading contenders and that we have flexibility to publish articles rapidly.
In some cases, we ask an author to revise and resubmit an article without making a commitment to publish it. We often accept such revised manuscripts, but several are rejected each year. On a case-by-case basis, we decide whether to circulate revised submissions to the external reviewers or only to the journal's editors.
Who are the external reviewers for IS?
We select qualified reviewers from across the field of international security studies. We rely particularly heavily on members of the IS editorial board, authors who have published in the journal, and present and former research fellows at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
What is the acceptance rate for manuscripts submitted to IS?
The acceptance rate varies from year to year, but it is currently around 6 percent. In most years, we receive almost 300 manuscripts and publish 20 to 25 articles.
If I submit an article, do I have to follow the IS style sheet?
No, you can submit a manuscript that conforms to any standard style and citation format. You will need to convert the article to IS style, however, if it is accepted for publication. Please bear in mind that all submissions should be double-spaced, include page numbers, and should not contain any form of identification in the text.
How long does it take for the editors to decide on submissions?
We usually reach a decision in two or three months. When a manuscript is clearly unsuitable for the journal, we often decide much faster. Sometimes, however, it may take longer than three months. In such cases, delays in receiving comments from external reviewers or the fact that the manuscript is one of many strong contenders for publication usually explains the delay.
Does IS object if I simultaneously submit a manuscript to another journal?
No, we have no objections to simultaneous submissions, provided that we are informed. Because we accept only a small proportion of submitted manuscripts and sometimes take several months to decide, we think it is only fair to allow authors the option to submit their work elsewhere.
How long does it take for articles to appear after acceptance?
The lag time between acceptance and publication varies, but it is rarely less than four months. Articles usually appear about six months after they have been submitted.
Will IS publish articles that have appeared elsewhere?
IS occasionally publishes articles that will also appear in books or in different form in another publication. All other things being equal, simultaneous or future publication elsewhere will hurt a manuscript's chances of being accepted at IS. The editors decide on such manuscripts on a case-by-case basis. Publication in IS usually becomes more likely if the manuscript is on an extremely important topic, is of exceptional quality, will not appear elsewhere until long after it has been published in IS, will be published in an obscure or inaccessible book or periodical, or will appear elsewhere in a significantly different form.
If my article is accepted, do I receive a complimentary copy of the IS issue in which it appears?
Yes, authors of articles each receive three complimentary copies, and authors of correspondence receive one complimentary copy. Additional copies can be ordered from MIT Press.
All questions or comments should be directed to:
Belfer Center for Science & International Affairs
Kennedy School of Government
79 JFK Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
Reviewer: Brandon Valeriano
Alexander B. Downes and Lindsey A. O’Rourke, "You Can’t Always Get What You Want: Why Foreign Imposed Regime Change Seldom Improves Interstate Relations," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Fall 2016), pp. 43–89.
Keren Yarhi-Milo, Alexander Lanoszka, and Zack Cooper, "To Arm or to Ally? The Patron’s Dilemma and the Strategic Logic of Arms Transfers and Alliances," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Fall 2016), pp. 90–139.
Reviewer: Michael McKoy
Reviewer: David H. Ucko
Reviewers: Stephen Walt, Campbell Craig, William Inboden, Robert Jervis, and Robert Vitalis
Or Rabinowitz and Nicholas L. Miller, "Keeping the Bombs in the Basement: U.S. Nonproliferation Policy toward Israel, South Africa, and Pakistan," International Security, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Summer 2015), pp. 47–86.
Reviewers: Thomas Maddux, Hal Brands, Julia M. Macdonald, Leopoldo Nuti, and Elisabeth Roehrlich
Max Paul Friedman and Tom Long, “Soft Balancing in the Americas: Latin American Opposition to U.S. Intervention, 1898-1936,” International Security, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Summer 2015), pp. 120–156.
Reviewer: Christopher Darnton
Max Paul Friedman and Tom Long reply.
Reviewer: Jennifer Lind
Reviewer: Nicholas Miller
Reviewer: Xiaoyu Pu
Reviewers: Brandon Yoder and Kyle Haynes
Reviewer: Christopher Clary
Llewelyn Hughes and Austin Long, "Is There an Oil Weapon? Security Implications of Changes in the Structure of the International Oil Market," International Security, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Winter 2014/15), pp. 152-189.
Reviewer: Jeff Colgan
Reviewer: Jayita Sarkar, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
Reply by Gaurav Kampani
Reviewer: Mark Peceny, University of New Mexico
Reviewer: Colin Dueck, George Mason University
Benjamin S. Lambeth, "Israel’s War in Gaza: A Paradigm of Effective Military Learning and Adaptation," International Security, Vol. 37 No. 2 (Fall 2012), pp. 81-118; andJerome Slater, "Just War Moral Philosophy and the 2008-09 Israeli Campaign in Gaza,"International Security, Vol. 37 No. 2 (Fall 2012), pp. 44-80.
Reviewer: Jeremy Pressman, University of Connecticut
Reviewer: Paul C. Avey
Reviewer: Austin Long
Patrick B. Johnston, "Does Decapitation Work? Assessing the Effectiveness of Leadership Targeting in Counterinsurgency Campaigns," International Security, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Spring 2012), pp. 47–79; and Bryan C. Price, "Targeting Top Terrorists: How Leadership Decapitation Contributes to Counterterrorism," International Security, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Spring 2012), pp. 9–46.
Reviewer: Jenna Jordan, Georgia Institute of Technology
Reviewer: Joseph M. Siracusa, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Australia
Reviewer: William C. Wohlforth, Dartmouth College
Reviewer: Robert Vitalis, University of Pennsylvania
Reviewer: Brendan M. Howe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul
Reviewer: Stephen R. Rock, Vassar College
Reviewer: Joshua Rovner, U.S. Naval War College
Reviewer: Marc Trachtenberg, University of California, Los Angeles
Reviewer: John Mueller, Ohio State University
International Security Style Guide
The journal's style conventions, set forth below, should be observed if a manuscript is accepted. Notes must also follow the format set forth on the following pages.
The author is responsible for providing camera-ready art and appropriate permissions for figures and graphs; the editors can arrange for drafting, generally at the author’s expense. Tables need only be legible; they will be typeset.
- Summary Introductions: The journal's goal is to publish cumulative scholarship and to foster debate about the substance of its contents, not about the authors' intentions. In service of these goals, authors are encouraged to begin articles with a summary introduction that lays out for readers the question being addressed, what the argument is, how it builds on or takes issue with preceding scholarship, what is new about the research or argument, and why it matters. This may be the most important part of your article and the hardest to write. Readers want to know: What questions do you address? Why and how have these questions arisen? What answers will you offer? Do you consult new sources? Do you settle outstanding questions? Mandate rethinking basic issues? Suggest certain policy choices or areas for further research? For examples, see Karl Lautenschläger, "The Submarine in Naval Warfare, 1901-2001," International Security, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Winter 1986/87), pp. 94-95; and John J. Mearsheimer, "A Strategic Misstep: The Maritime Strategy and Deterrence in Europe," International Security, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Fall 1986), pp. 3-5.
- Notes: Early in the piece, direct the reader to important previous work. Place your article in context by providing a note or notes that comprise a bibliography of the relevant literature. For examples, see Robert D. Blackwill, "Conceptual Problems of Conventional Arms Control," International Security, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Spring 1988), n. 33; and Barry R. Posen and Stephen Van Evera, "Defense Policy and the Reagan Administration: Departure from Conainment,"International Security, Vol. 8, No. 1(Summer 1983), nn. 7, 13. Feel free to include argument as well as sources in your notes.
- Ours and Theirs: The journal is an international publication, so references to "us" and "them" should be avoided in favor of specific reference to "U.S. allies," "the Japanese economy," "NATO budgets," and the like.
- American Spelling: However international in content, the journal uses only American spellings (defense, mobilization, armor). British spellings should be retained only in quoted material, titles, and names; otherwise all British spellings (defence, mobilisation, armour) should be converted by the author. For preferred spellings, see Webster’s Eleventh Collegiate Dictionary. Consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, on usage, format, punctuation, and other questions not covered herein.
- Headings: The use of headings and subheadings (to the third level) is encouraged, particularly in longer articles, to help the reader follow your argument.
- Explanation of Terms: The best IS articles, even those that focus on current issues, will be read for many years. Acronyms, colloquialisms, and terms of art may not be as well known in a decade; please provide explanations accordingly. Spell out acronyms where they first appear.
- The Last Word: Once a manuscript has been accepted by the journal, the process of editing and publishing is characterized by intense cooperative effort to make each piece the best it can possibly be, despite difficult deadlines. The editors' suggestions, however energetically argued, are just that (except on matters of basic style and format as noted in this style sheet). An article remains the author's work, not the journal’s; accordingly, the author has final responsibility for content and presentation.
General Information on Notes
See the Chicago Manual of Style for less-common citation forms.
- For subsequent citations after the first full citation of a source, see examples of short forms below. Do not use op. cit.
- State or country name should follow the place of publication if it is ambiguous (Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger) or not widely known (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall).
- Use standard abbreviation (Calif., Mass., D.C.), rather than USPS style (CA, MA).
- Anglicize foreign place names, but retain the standard English version of publisher's name (Moscow: Gospoltizdat, 1949).
- Avoid quotations, extracts, tables, and paragraphing in notes.
These examples demonstrate the basic International Securitynote format; when in doubt, check the Chicago Manual of Style and provide all bibliographic information in a format that most closely resembles the following.
Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, pp. 180, 183.
Posen, "Measuring the European Conventional Balance," p. 70 n. 30.
Ibid., p. 72 [do not use if the immediately preceding note contains more than the one reference].
Periodicals and Dailies
Barry R. Posen, "Measuring the European Conventional Balance: Coping with Complexity in Threat Assessment,"International Security, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Winter 1984/85), p. 74.
Selig S. Harrison, "A Breakthrough in Afghanistan?" Foreign Policy, No. 51 (Summer 1983), p. 23.
Gerard C. Smith, "Time is Running Out," Newsweek, January 31, 1983, p. 8.
- Observe order and punctuation of elements.
- Include full author name and article title.
- Give volume number, issue number and date, per publication's numbering and dating system.
- Note omission of usual comma after article title ending in question mark or exclamation point.
- Note inclusion of middle initials.
- For popular periodicals and dailies carrying no volume or issue numbers, note that parentheses are not needed around the date.
- Authors and page numbers should be included when available.
John J. Mearsheimer, Conventional Deterrence (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983), pp. 163-164.
- Note order of items.
- Note placement of punctuation.
- Use the author's full name.
Provide full page number, that is, pp. 163–167, not pp. 163–7:
Article or chapter in edited volume
Edward N. Luttwak, "The Operational Level of War," in Steven E. Miller, ed., Conventional Forces and American Defense Policy: An International Security Reader (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986), pp. 211–229.
- Note use of book's full title and subtitle
Volume in a series
Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower, Vol. 2: The President(New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), chap. 7.
- Use chapter where appropriate.
- User Arabic numerals for volumes even if Roman in original.
International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), The Military Balance, 1987–88 (London: IISS, 1987).
- Note the introduction and use of acronym.
Multivolume work; translated and edited version
Luigi Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, 3 vols., trans. and ed., Isabella M. Massey (London: Oxford University Press, 1952), p. 171.
“Zhongguo bu shi yi nu jiu shitai de xiangbalao” [China isn’t a bumpkin who in a fit of anger loses control], Huanqiu shibao [Global times], September 16, 2010.
Bernard Brodie and Fawn M. Brodie, From Crossbow to H-Bomb (New York: Dell, 1962; rev. and enl. ed., Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973).
- Note "Dell" stands alone without "Books," but full name of a university press is given.
Paper in a series
Desmond Ball, Targeting for Strategic Deterrence, Adelphi Paper No. 185 (London: IISS, Summer 1983), p. 1.
- Note the use of IISS acronym introduced in an earlier note; "Summer 1983" per publisher’s dating system.
Unpublished paper or dissertation
Alexander L. George, "Case Studies and Theory Development," paper presented at the Second Annual Symposium on Information Processing in Organizations, Carnegie-Mellon University, October 15–16, 1982, p. 2.
Stephen W. Van Evera, "Causes of War," Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1984, p. 1.
Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, Annual Report to the Congress, Fiscal Year 1984 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office [GPO], p. 127.
- Subsequent citations may use the GPO abbreviation.
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, The Mutual Security Act of 1956, 84th Cong., 2d sess., 1956, S. Rept. 2273, p. 20.
- For testimony, list individual first.
Leven C. Allen to Joint Chiefs of Staff, May 26, 1950, and memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, n.d., CCS 383.21 Korea (3-19-45), sec. 21, Records of the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff, Record Group 218, National Archives.
John F. Kennedy, "Appeasement at Munich," honors thesis, 1940, John Fitzgerald Kennedy Presidential Library (JFKL), Personal Papers (PP), box 2.
- Give the title of the cited item first and supply all the bibliographical dates necessary to permit identification and location of the source.
- Use consistent format throughout.
- Where there are repeated references to particular archives, introduce a short form for similar references in subsequent notes.
Authors are responsible for accuracy of facts and citations. The editors will raise questions and supply information to the best of our ability. The journal does not, however, have the staff to check the accuracy of quotations, citations, numbers, and facts; this must remain the responsibility of the author.
Address Questions To:
Editorial Assistant, International Security
Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University
79 JFK Street, Box 53
Cambridge, MA 02138