In recent decades, the global nuclear export market has observed a marked shift of demand from traditional customers in the Western world to developing countries, especially in Asia. At the same time, there has been a consequential decrease in industrial and financial capabilities among the once-dominant nuclear suppliers from the United States, France, and Japan. On the other hand, Russia has signed numerous contracts to introduce nuclear technology to new customers, and China will likely become another major player in this competition. In this presentation, Viet Phuong Nguyen will discuss the nonproliferation and security risks associated with the introduction of new nuclear suppliers and new recipients with lesser governance capabilities, with a focus on the implementation of safeguards and export control measures. A new contribution scheme for IAEA safeguards, and enhanced participation in the nonproliferation and export control regimes are proposed to address the potential risks of the “old” and the “new” nuclear exporters in the market, as well as the rise of the new customers.