Discussion Paper - Energy Technology Innovation Policy Project, Belfer Center
Governmental Energy Innovation Investments, Policies and Institutions in the Major Emerging Economies: Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico, China, and South Africa
Over the past decade, countries with emerging economies like Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico, China, and South Africa have become important global players in political and economic domains. In 2007, these six countries consumed and produced more than a third of the world's energy and emitted about 35 percent of total greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. The changing global energy landscape has important implications for energy technology innovation (ETI) nationally and internationally. However, there is limited information available about the investments and initiatives that are taking place by the national governments within these countries. This paper presents the information available on energy RD&D investments in the emerging economies.
This working paper also provides a comparative systemic analysis of government-initiated ETI activities in six major emerging economies: Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico, China, and South Africa (the BRIMCS countries). The aim of this analysis is to allow the identification of opportunities for collaboration within the governments of the BRIMCS countries and between the governments of the BRIMCS countries and those of other countries. These collaborations could take the form of cooperation or could involve coordination of activities in different countries.
The analysis distinguishes between three analytically separate, but interrelated components of a country's innovation system: (1) the administrative entities and procedures that set the direction of government support for ETI activities; (2) the allocation mechanisms for energy research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) support; and (3) the most important energy technology innovation institutions (ETIIs) and policies (ETIPs) that the government puts in place to accelerate ETI. Each country analysis concludes with a comparative framework that provides a simple and systematic overview of the number of policies that each country uses to support the different stages, actors, and functions of its energy technology innovation system.
On the basis of these comparative frameworks and the data gathered, the study concludes with three high-level recommendations for areas where the BRIMCS countries can cooperate or coordinate with each other to accelerate ETI.
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Discussion Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School