Articles

2379 Items

Dancers celebrate DPRK–China friendship at the Arirang Mass Games in 2010

Roman Harak via Wikimedia Commons

Magazine Article - Harvard Kennedy School

Easing U.S. Sanctions on North Korea Could Benefit Both Sides, HKS Korea Expert Tells Lawmakers

| May 17, 2022

Appearing at a hearing May 12 before the House Foreign Affairs Committee’s Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, Central Asia, and Nonproliferation, Park discussed U.S policy towards North Korea and described the challenges of using sanctions as a deterrent for North Korea’s nuclear saber rattling. Specifically, Park pointed to China’s deepening economic engagement with North Korea as one reason why western sanctions have largely failed to change Pyongyang’s behavior. “By free-riding off of China’s financial and domestic marketplace systems, North Korea can conduct vital commercial transactions beyond the reach of American sanctions,” Park said.

Amb. Bonnie Jenkins addresses the Project on Managing the Atom

Rose Lincoln/Harvard Staff Photographer. Courtesy of the Harvard Gazette.

Magazine Article - Harvard Gazette

Moves by Russia, China, North Korea Rekindle Nuclear Concerns

May 16, 2022

During a talk Wednesday, Ambassador Bonnie Jenkins, Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security, spoke to Matthew Bunn, James R. Schlesinger Professor of the Practice of Energy, National Security, and Foreign Policy at Harvard Kennedy School and co-principal investigator of the Managing the Atom Project, about the approaches that the U.S. is taking to the changing landscape of nuclear threats in Russia, China, and North Korea.

Military watching the start of work on the first part of some 180 kilometers of a 5.5 meter-high metal wall

AP/Czarek Sokolowski

Magazine Article - Foreign Affairs

When Migrants Become Weapons: The Long History and Worrying Future of a Coercive Tactic

| March/April 2022

Kelly Greenhill argues that by exploiting political divisions that exist within targeted states, the threatened or actual deployment of engineered flows of migrants has long been a distressingly effective policy instrument, and it is unlikely to go away anytime soon. Unless policymakers begin to confront the forces that enable weaponized migration, the favored policy responses seem destined to increase, rather than curtail, its use.

Kairat K. Abdrakhmanov, Permanent Representative of Kazakhstan to the UN in Vienna, at the opening of the ATOM Project Exhibition in the Vienna International Centre in October 2013

Wikimedia Commons/ CTBTO

Journal Article - Journal of Cold War Studies

Non-Proliferation and State Succession: The Demise of the USSR and the Nuclear Aftermath in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine

| Spring 2022

One of the lingering legacies of the Cold War was the enormous nuclear arsenals amassed by the two superpowers. When one of them, the Soviet Union, disintegrated in 1991, its nearly 30,000 nuclear weapons were located on the territory of not one but four newly sovereign states: Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Although command-and-control of Soviet strategic missiles was centralized in Moscow, the specter of the single largest wave of horizontal nuclear proliferation loomed after 1991. By 1994, however, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine had decided to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-nuclear weapons states and to give up the missiles on their soil. Drawing on previously untapped archival records, this article reconstructs the divergent paths of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine toward relinquishing their armaments. A combination of domestic and international political factors contributed to the resolution of the problem. Among the various contributing factors, the NPT stands out as a salient force that provided normative framing and guided deliberations on post-Soviet nuclear disarmament.

An aerial view of the village of Kivalina, Alaska

Flickr/ShoreZone

Journal Article - The Yearbook of Polar Law

The Role of Governance in Promoting the Resilience of Arctic Communities

| Apr. 19, 2022

The article examines the concept of resilience and the role which governance can play in promoting the resilience of Arctic communities, and therefore their ability not only to survive but also to thrive. The article develops a theory of resilience, dividing types of resilience into in-situ and ex-situ resilience to allow the comparison of seemingly disparate examples. Through the use of a systematic comparative case analysis technique, the article explores the lessons which can be learned about the role of good governance in ensuring the promotion of resilience in Arctic communities in the future.

Thick layer of permafrost exposed by coastal erosion

US Geological Survey/Brandt Meixell

Newspaper Article - ArcticToday

A New Program Aims to Monitor, Mitigate and Adapt to Arctic-Wide Thaw

    Author:
  • Yereth Rosen
| Apr. 18, 2022

The Woodwell Climate Research Center and the Harvard Kennedy School’s Arctic Initiative this week unveiled their multi-year Permafrost Pathways program. The $41 million program, with funding from the collaborative Audacious Project, will combine global permafrost-thaw monitoring with regional and local initiatives to adapt to the onset of usteq and related challenges.

Permafrost samples held by scientists

Credit: Chris Linder

Newspaper Article - The New York Times

Donors Pledge $41 Million to Monitor Thawing Arctic Permafrost

    Author:
  • Henry Fountain
| Apr. 11, 2022

On April 11, 2022, The New York Times covered the launch of the new Permafrost Pathways project, a collaboration between the Belfer Center's Arctic Initiative, Woodwell Climate Research Center, and the Alaskan Institute for Justice. The six-year effort by climate scientists and policy experts aims to fill gaps in knowledge about planet-warming emissions and help affected communities in Alaska.

three wind turbines silhouetted against the sky

Unsplash/Ethan Kent

Journal Article - Energy Policy

Does Green Growth Foster Green Policies? Value Chain Upgrading and Feedback Mechanisms on Renewable Energy Policies

| April 2022

The expansion of renewable energies not only lowers carbon emissions, it also redistributes resources among actors. This article argues that green industrialization – specifically, manufacturing and the development of renewable energy technologies — creates economic gains that impact political processes and increase renewable energy policy ambition. Building on a combined framework of policy feedback and global value chain literature, authors Laima Eicke and Silvia Weko see domestic value creation as a key determinant of coalition strength and learning effects for policymakers. 

Mads Brügger Receives Lux Film Prize in 2019

Wikimedia Commons/ European Parliament

Journal Article - Nonproliferation Review

Of Moles and Missiles: Anatomy of a North Korean Arms Deal?

| Apr. 08, 2022

In October 2020, a parade celebrating the 75th anniversary of the founding of the Korean Workers Party showcased a range of new weapons systems, including a new large intercontinental ballistic missile. The same weekend saw the release of a fascinating documentary film directed by provocative Danish filmmaker Mads Brügger, entitled The Mole: Undercover in North Korea. The film consists of footage—much of it filmed undercover—that was shot over a period of 10 years. It tells the story of a retired Danish chef’s infiltration of the Korean Friendship Association (KFA), an international organization that seeks to promote the ideology, history, and culture of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and defend the country from its critics. The story culminates in the exploration of plans for a series of sanctions-busting deals: constructing an underground arms factory on a Ugandan island, shipping oil to North Korea, and supplying arms to unspecified customers of Pyongyang through a private arms dealer. This review essay seeks to contextualize the film’s contents, consider the insights it offers into North Korea’s arms dealing, and examine a number of questions that arise.

North Korea celebrates Victory Day in 2013

Stefan Krasowski

Journal Article - Intelligence and National Security

Countering a Technological Berlin Tunnel: North Korean Operatives, Helicopters, and Intelligence in the Cold War Illicit Arms Trade, 1981-1986

| Apr. 04, 2022

This article considers the relationship between intelligence and the arms trade by examining North Korea’s procurement of 86 Hughes helicopters in the 1980s. Using recently declassified documents, the article contextualises the case using US intelligence assessments of North Korea’s procurement, and considers the role of the DPRK’s diplomats in Berlin, and the Western powers’ response. This history provides insights into the use of intelligence operatives for arms procurement, the role of intelligence agencies in monitoring the illicit arms trade, and the challenges in collection, analysis and acting on the intelligence surrounding arms trafficking.