Reports & Papers

1576 Items

Paper

RMB Internationalization

| May 2018

While China’s economy has become a major force on the global stage, its financial system remains underdeveloped, and the RMB is a minor player in global transactions. Despite its economic prowess, China plays a minor role in existing international financial institutions relative to the West, spurring frustration with the current system. Perhaps more importantly, China has seen the danger of allowing the U.S. to own the global financial system and potentially weaponize it against China. 

Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg arrives to testify before a joint hearing of the Commerce and Judiciary Committees on Capitol Hill in Washington, Tuesday, April 10, 2018

AP Photo / Pablo Martinez Monsivais

Paper

Tech Tock...

    Author:
  • Howard Cohen
| May 2018

“Fake news” has become a term used by the U.S. President to discredit journalists. “Fake news” is becoming a means for governments around the world to justify censorship. And “fake news” threatened U.S. democracy and institutions in the 2016 Presidential election. The term itself is thrown around more than solutions to the problem, also referred to as misinformation (“the inadvertent sharing of false information”) and disinformation (“the deliberate creation and sharing of information known to be false”). I endeavor to change that with this article, which focuses on what can be done going forward to prevent the spread of mis- and disinformation

A cell tower over Perth, Australia, January 4, 2014. (Flickr User “Shari” / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Flickr User “Shari” / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

The Public Square in the Digital Age

| June 2018

This paper addresses the question: how should Australia respond to the rising threat of cyber-enabled interference operations? While its focus is Australia, its findings and recommendations are intended to be relevant to a global audience. Australia has already been something of a ‘canary in the coal mine’ in putting the issue of foreign interference on the global agenda. Its geostrategic position—as a democracy in the middle of the increasingly volatile Indo-Pacific region—is likely to ensure it remains on the leading edge of the CEI-OPS threat.

Commuters use mobile phones in Tokyo, Japan.

Adobe Stock

Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Combating Information Operations

    Author:
  • Simon Jones
| June 2018

This paper focuses on developing an operating concept—composed of ends, ways, and means—for those who are tasked to respond and those affected by foreign interference and IO. Based on the principle of information superiority and drawing on best practice from efforts to counter cyberattacks, terrorism, and civil emergencies, the paper seeks to develop a more holistic and collaborative approach for planning for and responding disinformation, identify additional sources of support and expertise, and outline new norms and standards of behavior to assist an effective response.

Job One for Space Force

NASA

Report - Cyber Security Project, Belfer Center

Job One for Space Force: Space Asset Cybersecurity

| July 12, 2018

When we think about critical infrastructure, the first assets that come to mind include the electric grid, water networks and transportation systems. Further unpacking the definition of critical infrastructure, we consider industries such as agriculture, defense or the financial sector. However, we rarely think about where the underlying systems that enable technology functionality across these sectors physically reside, who developed the technology, and who can access and manage that technology.

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Paper - Institute of Nuclear Materials Management

Regaining Nuclear Security Momentum

| July 2018

The 2010-2016 nuclear security summit process focused leaders’ attention on nuclear security and preventing nuclear terrorism. Momentum has waned since the final summit in 2016. Despite continuing nuclear security improvements in some countries, and ongoing efforts to maintain or strengthen the international nuclear security framework, serious vulnerabilities still exist in nuclear security systems around the world. Many nuclear facilities are not protected against all of the plausible threats adversaries might pose—especially in the case of threats from insiders. Nuclear materials remain unnecessarily vulnerable in too many locations. The culture within many nuclear organizations is insufficiently focused on security. Many nuclear security systems are not being exposed to sufficiently in-depth, creative, and realistic vulnerability assessments and testing. This paper will summarize the post-summit evolution of nuclear security efforts and offer recommendations for regaining international nuclear security momentum through combating complacency, improving implementation on the ground, strengthening frameworks for international cooperation, and maintaining nuclear security leadership.

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Paper - Institute of Nuclear Materials Management

On China's Closed Fuel Cycle Strategies

| July 2018

As it expands its fleet of nuclear power plants, China faces an important decision: whether to make large capital investments in facilities to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle the resulting plutonium in fast neutron reactors, or continue to store nuclear fuel, leaving for the future decisions on whether to reprocess the fuel or dispose of it as waste. In reaching a decision, policymakers should consider financial costs, the available fuel supply, nuclear security and proliferation risks, health and environmental dangers, and spent fuel management issues. This paper will first discuss the status of China’s breeder reactors and civilian reprocessing programs. It will then examine the costs and fuel supply issues associated with reprocessing.

In this May 2, 2016 photo, People’s Liberation Army veteran Zhao Shunli uses a rear view mirror to refine his look at his home in Luoyang in central China’s Henan province.

AP Photo/Ng Han Guan

Paper

Taking History as a Mirror

| June 2018

This report goes beyond the headlines to analyze Xi’s foreign policy discourse. It uses historical analysis of official strategies to suggest that there may be more continuity than commonly assumed between Chinese foreign policy under Xi and that under his predecessors. In particular, Xi has not changed the fundamental strategic orientation of China’s external relations in the post-Mao era: “Opening” and “Peace and Development.”

Paper - Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy

Stabilizing Sino-Indian Security Relations: Managing the Strategic Rivalry After Doklam

    Author:
  • Frank O'Donnell
| June 21, 2018

The paper provides a detailed analysis of the contemporary Sino-Indian conventional ground and nuclear force balances and carefully reconstructs how mutual developments in these areas are perceived by both New Delhi and Beijing.