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U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, centre, hosts the Budapest Memorandum Ministerial meeting with Ukrainian Foreign Minister Andrii Deshchytsia, right, and British Foreign Secretary William Hague, left, in Paris, Wednesday, March 5, 2014.

(AP Photo/Kevin Lamarque, Pool)

News - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Back in the USSR: Past Russian Policies Provide Mr. Putin’s Playbook in Ukraine

| March 18, 2014

Since Russia’s intervention in Ukraine and Crimea, much attention has been focused on the 1994 Budapest Memorandum, which provided Ukraine with security assurances in return for Kyiv signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and giving up the nuclear arsenal it inherited from the collapse of the USSR. Twenty years ago––before that memorandum was signed by the Russian Federation, the United States and the United Kingdom––Ukraine and Crimea were also plunged into a state of turmoil. The Russian government of President Boris Yeltsin put economic, security and territorial pressure on Kyiv to press Moscow’s advantage in a series of disputes about Ukraine’s nuclear arsenal and the Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol and other Crimean peninsula ports.

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Paper - Strengthening Democratic Institutions Project, Belfer Center

Back in the USSR: Russia's Intervention in the Internal Affairs of the Former Soviet Republics and the Implications for United States Policy Towards Russia

| January 1994

An in-depth analysis of Russia''s intervention in the affairs of the newly independent states, establishing a pattern of Russian economic, political, ethnic conflict, and military manipulation, including implications for US policy.

Paper - Strengthening Democratic Institutions Project, Belfer Center

Beyond Cold War to Trilateral Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region: Scenarios for New Relationships Between Japan, Russia, and the United States

| December 1992

December 1992: This Report addresses the question of how the dispute between Japan and Russia can be resolved to achieve fully normalized relations between these two great nations. The principal obstacle to normalization is a group of four small islands that stand as relics of World War II and symbols of the Cold War.