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A technician prepares a giant construction made up of nearly 1,500 old radios on Vilnius Cathedral square, to commemorate events of 1989 when analog radios were used to coordinate the so-called Baltic Way human chain, in Vilnius, Lithuania, Friday, Aug. 23, 2019.

AP Photo/Mindaugas Kulbis

Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Cognitive Warfare: The Russian Threat to Election Integrity in the Baltic States

| November 2019

Recent years have seen a cascade of revelations regarding Russian attempts to interfere with or disrupt elections in the West. While the Russian government’s influence campaign in the 2016 US presidential election is the most well-known, it was by no means an isolated incident. Western governments are waking up the threat that Russian cyber and information operations pose to the integrity of their elections and the stability of their domestic politics. However, the question of how to counter these efforts remains unanswered.