14 Items

Semi-conductor chips are assembled and organized on a workbench before a ribbon-cutting ceremony to mark the opening of a Nanotronics manufacturing center at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, Wednesday, April 28, 2021, in the Brooklyn borough of New York.

AP Photo/John Minchillo

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Catalyzing Semiconductor Innovation through a National Semiconductor Technology Center

| June 2023

The National Semiconductor Technology Center (NSTC), newly appropriated in the CHIPS and Science Act, is intended to be the central hub for research and engineering within the semiconductor ecosystem. This paper delves into the socioeconomic and geopolitical context of the CHIPS legislation, the infrastructure supporting the NSTC, and crucial business considerations for its success. Specifically, the authors highlight the potential benefits for smaller and medium-sized enterprises, which stand to gain the most from the NSTC.

ATE student learning to measure output power from a laser

Photo from ATE Impacts 2020-2021

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Lab-to-Market Translation at NSF’s Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships (TIP) Directorate

| June 2023

One major effort through which CHIPS and Science seeks to achieve this is the creation of the Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships (TIP) Directorate at the National Science Foundation (NSF). The TIP Directorate’s mission is to advance use-inspired research at NSF, particularly in areas of technology critical to strategic competition. 

Technicians in clean room learn to make semiconductors

Photo from ATE Impacts 2022-2023

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Community Colleges and the Semiconductor Workforce

| June 2023

Over the last several decades, the U.S.’s domestic semiconductor manufacturing capacity has declined. The CHIPS Act aims to reverse this trend by investing over $50 billion in direct funding and loan subsidies to expand semiconductor research and development and manufacturing in the U.S. This primer focuses on the workforce challenges that will be spurred by this microelectronics industry expansion and proposes how community colleges can play a critical role in addressing these challenges. 

Someone holds a silicon wafer with chips etched into it as Vice President Kamala Harris tours a site where Applied Materials plans to build a $4 billion research facility on Monday, May 22, 2023, in Sunnyvale, Calif.

Jim Wilson/The New York Times via AP, Pool

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Standard Setting: Process, Politics, and the CHIPS Program

    Authors:
  • Sreya Vaidyanathan
  • Arya Thapa
  • Andrew Trzcinski
| June 2023

The CHIPS & Science Act of 2022 outlines an expansive national strategy to preserve and bolster the United States’ national security by ensuring a pathway for a resilient supply chain for semiconductors and other critical and emerging technologies. Targeted provisions in the CHIPS and Science Act aim to address U.S. leadership in domestic and international standards-setting processes. For federal agencies such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), contending with implementation of standards-related mandates within the CHIPS program presents a delicate balancing act between supporting emerging national priorities but preserving the existing industry-driven model for setting standards. 

drawing of math problems

N. Hanacek/NIST

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Technology Primer: Post-Quantum Cryptography

    Editors:
  • Boaz Barak
  • Lily Chen
  • Jack Hidary
  • Vinod Vaikuntanathan
| June 23, 2023

Quantum computers pose a threat to conventional cryptography, putting our information and communication systems at risk. In an effort to sustain the privacy and integrity of our data ecosystems, researchers are turning to post-quantum cryptography (PQC). This publication describes how PQC works, and the governance, application, and public purpose considerations for implementing PQC. 

Steam rises from a coal-fired power plant.

AP Photo/Michael Probst

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Technology Primer: Direct Air Capture

    Editors:
  • Howard Herzog
  • Peter Psarras
| June 09, 2023

Direct air capture (DAC) is a type of technology that captures carbon dioxide directly from the air. As the negative impacts of climate change become ever more apparent, governments and private industries have funneled increasing support toward DAC as a critical pathway toward achieving a net-zero future. Although a promising technology, wide-scale deployment of DAC faces several significant challenges.

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Technology Primer: Smart Wearables and Health

    Editors:
  • Zhenan Bao
  • Lisa Cadmus-Bertram
  • Charles Odonkor
  • Jessica Rich
  • David A. Simon
  • Ariel D. Stern
| June 05, 2023

Smart wearables are quickly becoming the next wave of ubiquitous technologies due to their vast market penetration and broad utility. In the healthcare setting, smart wearables may be used to advance preventative health measures, emergency medicine, and primary care. This technology has the potential to revolutionize the way that healthcare is done, but major technical and nontechnical limitations exist and the regulation of these technologies is still underdeveloped.

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Technology Primer: Augmented and Virtual Reality for the Metaverse

    Editors:
  • Micaela Mantegna
  • Tibor Merey
  • Greg Pryor
  • John Yang
| Apr. 24, 2023

Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR), typically accessed through smartphones and headset devices, allow users to access a shared virtual environment, often referred to as a metaverse. While major companies make multibillion dollar bets on the metaverse, regulation and governance structures are still underdeveloped. In this technology primer, we dive into the technology, use cases, governance, and public purpose considerations of AR and VR for the Metaverse.

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Technology Primer: Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning

    Editors:
  • Nicolas Christin
  • Susan Ritchie
  • Daniel Zhang
| Apr. 06, 2023

Artificial intelligence (AI), and specifically machine learning (ML), is becoming increasingly prominent in the day-to-day lives of most people through commercial ready products, such as OpenAI's ChatGPT. In this technology primer, we dive into the technology, use cases, governance, and public purpose considerations of AI and ML. 

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Technology Primer: Social Media Recommendation Algorithms

| Aug. 25, 2022

The use of social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and TikTok is increasingly widespread, currently amounting to billions of users worldwide. Social media companies deploy proprietary recommendation algorithms to automate the selection, ranking, and presentation of content on the platform’s “feed” or recommended content section, every time a user opens or refreshes the site or app. However, social media recommendation algorithms have a range of privacy, security, information quality, and psychological concerns for users. 

A successful approach to the regulation of social media recommendation algorithms will require a combination of government regulation, self governance, and external oversight to facilitate value alignment across these diverse actors and tackle the various challenges associated with this technology. This publication explores the technical components of social media recommendation systems, as well as their public purpose considerations.