8 Items

Paper - Harvard Business School

Henry A. Kissinger as Negotiator: Background and Key Accomplishments

| Jan. 24, 2017

Following a brief summary of Henry A. Kissinger’s career, this paper describes six of his most pivotal negotiations: the historic establishment of U.S. diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China, the easing of geopolitical tension with the Soviet Union, symbolized by the signing of the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (“SALT I”), the limited success of the SALT II negotiations, the mediation after the 1973 Arab-Israeli war of the agreement on Sinai disengagement between Egypt and Israel and of the Israel-Syria Separation of Forces Agreement, and the Paris Peace Accords to end the Vietnam War.

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Paper - Harvard Business School

Henry Kissinger's Negotiation Campaign to End the Vietnam War

| Dec. 12, 2016

President Richard M. Nixon was elected in 1968 with the widespread expectation that he would bring about an end to the costly and unpopular war in Vietnam. The task largely fell to National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger. When the negotiations began, North Vietnam appeared to have a winning hand with time on its side. To induce agreement from North Vietnam on acceptable terms, Kissinger orchestrated a complex negotiation campaign with multiple fronts: North Vietnam, the U.S. public and Congress China, the USSR, West Germany, and South Vietnam. Kissinger’s efforts culminated in the signing of the 1973 Paris Peace Accords, which held for about two years before collapsing in the wake of Watergate. The account in this working paper carefully describes — but does not analyze nor draw lessons from — core features of these challenging negotiations. Forthcoming papers will provide analysis and derive general insights from this negotiation campaign.

Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, following her interview at Stanford University with Harvard Professors (left to right) James Sebenius, Robert Mnookin, and Nicholas Burns.

Argyle Roble, Stanford University

- Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center Newsletter

Former Secretary of State Rice Discusses Persuasive Diplomacy

| June 2016

Professors Nicholas Burns of Harvard Kennedy School, James Sebenius of Harvard Business School, and Robert Mnookin of Harvard Law School traveled to Stanford University in February to interview former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice about diplomacy and her most consequential negotiations while in office. The interview with Secretary Rice, now a professor at Stanford, was the latest in a series of recorded discussions with former secretaries of state by the three faculty directors of The American Secretaries of State Project (SOSP). Rice discussed major negotiations with which she was involved during President George W. Bush’s administration and shared lessons she has learned about diplomacy.

From left, U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meet with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe at Abe's residence in Tokyo Oct. 3, 2013.

DoD Photo

Analysis & Opinions - The National Interest

Reassuring Jittery Asian Allies

| Apr. 04, 2014

"It is time for the Obama administration to concentrate with a laser-like precision on an urgent strategic challenge: not the FAA, but PAA—perceptions of American allies. By tacitly acquiescing to China's air defense zone, the United States deepened the pervasive perception among our Asian allies—grounded in a long history of U.S. ambivalent behavior towards its friends in the region—that it is an unreliable security patron, increasing their temptation to explore alternative security assurance options, including nuclear weapons."


Nuclear Negotiations between the United States and its Allies

| March 12, 2014

What can the United States do to thwart the nuclear ambitions of its allies? Dr. Kogan analyzes past cases where the United States was able to leverage its alliance commitments to stop friendly states from going nuclear. He then asks what lessons these past nuclear negotiations hold for today.  In the coming decade, key U.S. allies in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia) and East Asia (South Korea, Japan) may consider reducing their reliance on U.S. security guarantees by acquiring independent nuclear deterrents.  In conversation with Project Director Kevin Ryan, Dr. Kogan discusses Washington's options in confronting these contemporary allies with nascent nuclear appetites.


Proliferation Among Friends: Taiwan's Lessons from 1970s–80s

| October 2013

The U.S. achieved nonproliferation success against Taiwan in the 1970s and 1980s by forcing this highly dependent ally to accept intrusive on-site inspections that stopped its nuclear work. Taiwan depended on the U.S. for its very survival....Repeated military punishment threats against Taiwan's security (threat to abandon) and civilian nuclear program failed to change this ally's determination to acquire nuclear weapons. Success was achieved thanks to coercion by denial and dismantlement that uncovered and stopped Taipei's nuclear work.