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This combination image shows U.S. President Joe Biden in Washington, Nov. 6, 2021, and China's President Xi Jinping in Brasília, Brazil, Nov. 13, 2019.

AP Photo/Alex Brandon, Eraldo Peres

Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

The Great Diplomatic Rivalry: China vs the U.S.

This report is not about current U.S. and Chinese diplomatic efforts to meet challenges posed by Putin’s invasion of Ukraine and the ongoing war. Instead, it is an assessment of both nations’ statecraft and diplomacy in addressing the challenges posed by the first 20 years of the 21st century—before Putin invaded Ukraine.