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AP/Jeff Chiu, File

Analysis & Opinions - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Reactions to the Leak of Classified Military Intelligence Documents

Belfer Center experts on security, intelligence, and cybersecurity issues were interviewed on the recent leak of classified military intelligence documents allegedly by Airman Jack Teixeira.

Soldiers of the Soviet Red Army are marching in a parade at Moscow's Red Square, in this undated photograph. In the background the "GUM," the largest department store in Moscow, is decorated with huge banners of government propaganda. (AP Photo)

AP Photo

Analysis & Opinions - Russia Matters

Islamic State and the Bolsheviks: Plenty in Common and Lessons to Heed

| Dec. 16, 2016

If the history of the USSR is any guide, then IS will not refrain from trying to expand after being recognized. Even after Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin’s death in 1924, the Soviet government spent decades actively and quite successfully implementing his driving dictum: “Probe with a bayonet: If you meet steel, stop. If you meet mush, then push.”

Common Grackle attacks its image in a car mirror, thinking it is a rival bird. St. Lucia, April 2013.

AP Photo

Policy Brief - Quarterly Journal: International Security

Grounds for Hope: The Evolutionary Science behind Territorial Conflict

| March 2014

In the future, territorial conflict is likely to become more important, as populations grow and resources decline, and as territorial disputes expand into new domains, such as the polar regions, outer space and near-Earth orbits, radio frequency bands, the internet, and the commercial control of land. To avoid war and to enable other positive effects to follow, resolving conflicts is critical. Should territorial issues be resolved, studies have found that demilitarization and democratization are more likely to ensue. States will have a better chance of achieving these goals if they step back and recognize the broader patterns of territoriality in nature, of which humans are just one particularly deadly example.

Book - Princeton University Press

Securing the Peace: The Durable Settlement of Civil Wars

| October 2009

Timely and pathbreaking, Securing the Peace is the first book to explore the complete spectrum of civil war terminations, including negotiated settlements, military victories by governments and rebels, and stalemates and ceasefires. Examining the outcomes of all civil war terminations since 1940, Monica Toft develops a general theory of postwar stability, showing how third-party guarantees may not be the best option. She demonstrates that thorough security-sector reform plays a critical role in establishing peace over the long term.