Articles

59 Items

People at Seoul Train Station watch a a local news program reporting about a North Korean missile launch. Aug. 30, 2017 (Lee Jin-man/Associated Press).

Lee Jin-man/Associated Press

Journal Article - The RUSI Journal

North Korea’s Missile Programme and Supply-Side Controls: Lessons for Countering Illicit Procurement

| Oct. 17, 2018

Despite one of the most extensive sanctions regimes in history, including an embargo on missile technologies, North Korea has taken huge steps forward in its ballistic missile programme. Daniel Salisbury explores the limitations of, and challenges of implementing, supply-side approaches to missile nonproliferation. Considering North Korea’s recent progress and efforts to evade sanctions, the article highlights the continuing need to strengthen efforts to counter illicit trade in missile-related technologies.

Blogtrepreneur/Flickr

Blogtrepreneur/Flickr

Journal Article - Nonproliferation Review

Solving the Jurisdictional Conundrum: How U.S. Enforcement Agencies Target Overseas Illicit Procurement Networks Using Civil Courts

| September 2018

Over the past two decades, the United States has increasingly turned to targeted sanctions and export restrictions, such as those imposed against Iran and North Korea, in order to curb the spread of weapons of mass destruction. One vexing problem, however, is how to contend with jurisdictional hurdles when the violations occur overseas, in countries that are unable or unwilling to assist US enforcement efforts. To solve this problem, US prosecutors are turning to strategies with significant extraterritorial implications—that is, exercising legal authority beyond national borders. One such tool is to use civil legal procedures to seize assets linked to sanctions or export-control violations in jurisdictions that lack cooperative arrangements with US enforcement agencies. While this may be an attractive strategy to bolster enforcement efforts against overseas illicit procurement, using such tools is not without consequence. This article explores the political, legal, and technical implications of enforcing extraterritorial controls against overseas non-state actors by exploring the recent uses of civil-asset forfeiture against Iranian and North Korean procurement networks.

Earth at night, 2012. People around the world depend upon electric lighting. Generating electricity using increased amounts of non-fossil fuels is critical to slowing climate change.

USA.gov

Journal Article - Ecological Economics

Using Inclusive Wealth for Policy Evaluation: Application to Electricity Infrastructure Planning in Oil-Exporting Countries

| 2017

Decision-makers often seek to design policies that support sustainable development. Prospective evaluations of how effectively such policies are likely to meet sustainability goals have nonetheless remained relatively challenging. Evaluating policies against sustainability goals can be facilitated through the inclusive wealth framework, which characterizes development in terms of the value to society of its underlying capital assets, and defines development to be potentially sustainable if that value does not decline over time.

Journal Article - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Making Technological Innovation Work for Sustainable Development

| August 12, 2016

This article sets forth the authors' perspective on how technological innovation can better advance the goals of sustainable development. The authors seek to help bridge the gap between scholarship and practice by drawing from conceptual research, empirical cases, and real-world experience to highlight practical guidelines for use by practicing scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, and policy advocates.

A Chinese power plant.

CC-BY-SA-3.0

Journal Article - Nature

Reduced Carbon Emission Estimates from Fossil Fuel Combustion and Cement Production in China

    Authors:
  • Dabo Guan
  • Wei Wei
  • Steven J Davis
  • Philippe Ciais
  • Jin Bai
  • Shushi Peng
  • Qiang Zhang
  • Klaus Hubacek
  • Gregg Marland
  • Robert J. Andres
  • Douglas Crawford-Brown
  • Jintai Lin
  • Hongyan Zhao
  • Chaopeng Hong
  • Thomas A. Boden
  • Kuishuang Feng
  • Glen P. Peters
  • Fengming Xi
  • Junguo Liu
  • Yuan Li
  • Yu Zhao
  • Ning Zeng
  • Kebin He
| August 2015

The authors findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 or China's land carbon sink in 2000–2009.The revisions of the Chinese emissions are substantial enough that they may lead to adjustments in the Global Carbon Cycle.

The agricultural fields in active use (dark green) or fallow (brown to tan), are approximately 1 km in diameter. Much of the Saudi Arabia's Wadi As-Sirhan Basin shown here is sandy (light tan to brown surfaces).

Wikimedia CC 2.0

Journal Article - Sustainable Production and Consumption

Food Security Amidst Water Scarcity: Insights on Sustainable Food Production from Saudi Arabia

Water, energy, and food security are of critical concern as rising population growth and rapid urbanization place greater pressure on our natural resources. This study evaluates the growing internationalization of food production in water-scarce countries using the case of Saudi Arabia as a microcosm to illustrate the tradeoffs in resource consumption associated with crop selection and farming practices.

Journal Article - Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

International Support for Feed-in Tariffs in Developing Countries—A Review and Analysis of Proposed Mechanisms

| November 2014

"Government support in the form of so-called feed-in tariff policies (FITs), which combine long-term, fixed-price electricity purchase agreements and guaranteed grid-access, has attracted large private-sector investments in sustainable electricity generation in the industrialized world. In an effort to replicate these experiences globally, a number of international organizations, NGOs, banks and donor countries are proposing mechanisms to cover part of the cost of FITs in developing countries. This paper reviews these proposals for supported FITs and then uses a case study of Thailand's Alternative Energy Development Plan 2013–2021 to investigate the opportunities and challenges of supporting FITs at a global scale."

Wind turbine visible above Nai Harn Beach, Phuket, Thailand, March 16, 2010.

ADwarf Photo

Journal Article - Journal of Cleaner Production

The Effect of Local and Global Learning on the Cost of Renewable Energy in Developing Countries

| In Press

High upfront costs are a critical barrier for investments in clean infrastructure technologies in developing countries. This paper uses a case study of Thailand's electricity sector to create realistic estimates for the relative contributions of local and global technological learning to reducing these cost in the future and discusses implications of such learnings for international climate policy.

Journal Article - Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences

Technology Innovation and Energy

Energy technology innovation is the key to driving the technological changes that are necessary to meet the challenge of mitigating energy-related greenhouse gas emissions to avoid 'dangerous climate change.' Success in innovation requires the enhancement of public investment in the innovation process, the creation of markets for low-carbon technologies through stronger climate policies, and a continued focus on energy access and equity.

Smokestack emitting pollution in Zhengzhou, China, 28 January 2012.

Flora-Victoria Photo

Journal Article - Environmental Science and Technology

Decoupling Analysis and Socioeconomic Drivers of Environmental Pressure in China

    Authors:
  • Sai Liang
  • Douglas Crawford-Brown
  • Yafei Wang
  • Ming Xu
| 2014

China's unprecedented change offers a unique opportunity for uncovering relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure. Here the authors show the trajectories of China's environmental pressure and reveal underlying socioeconomic drivers during 1992−2010. Mining and manufacturing industries are the main contributors to increasing environmental pressure from the producer perspective. Changes in urban household consumption, fixed capital formation, and exports are the main drivers from the consumer perspective....Environmental sustainability can only be achieved by timely technology innovation and changes of production structure and consumption pattern.