South Asia

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Journal Article - The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs

Pakistan Through the Lens of the 'Triple A' Theory

| Winter 2006

"How has a state whose founding fathers were secular people who believed in rule of law and democracy drifted toward religious extremism and authoritarianism? Three primary factors—variations on the Triple A theory of influence (Allah, the Army, and America)—have led Pakistan down this path: a powerful independent military, the mushrooming of religious militant groups, and the hydra-headed monster that is the intelligence services."