International Relations

6492 Items

The President of Israel, Isaac Herzog, and his wife, Michal Herzog, landing in Abu Dhabi

Wikimedia CC/Amos Ben Gershom / Government Press Office of Israel

Journal Article - Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs

The "Age of Normalizations"— An Overdue Post-Mortem

| 2024

Prior to October 7, 2023, the defining feature of Israeli foreign policy was the drive to normalize ties with Arab states, thereby "shrinking” the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and assembling Iran's rivals into a broad regional coalition. Despite the endurance of interests that made such a pursuit desirable, the most lucrative selling point of normalization—the ability to develop it into a diplomatic construct with which to contain Iran—had already expired prior to October 7, along with the essential contextual condition for such a deal: broad US support. Rather, the "Age of Normalizations," a period in which diplomatic normalization could feasibly serve as the kernel of Israeli strategy, expired in late 2021 as a consequence of the Biden administration's volte-face in the Middle East.

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Analysis & Opinions - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Should the Biden Administration Pressure the Ukrainians to go to the Negotiating Table and Resolve the Dispute with Russia Diplomatically?

| Apr. 01, 2024

Amidst Russia’s ongoing war in Ukraine, the debate intensifies over whether the Biden Administration should pressure Ukraine into diplomatic talks with Russia. Proponents believe negotiations could preempt prolonged conflict whereas opponents feel such a move could compromise Ukraine’s sovereignty. The sensitivity of the topic demands a nuanced evaluation of its implications for Ukraine and the international order.

This study group, led by Dr. Karen Donfried, is examining key foreign policy debates flowing from Russia’s war against Ukraine. Students discuss and debate the weekly topic with guest speakers.

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Analysis & Opinions - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Should the Biden Administration Provide Ukraine with any Weapons (Short of Nuclear, Chemical, or Biological Weapons) it Requires to Win the War?

| Mar. 21, 2024

There is intense debate on whether the Biden Administration should supply Ukraine with any necessary weapons to ensure victory. Advocates argue this support is crucial for Ukraine's self-defense and deterrence against further aggression, while opponents raise concerns about escalation risks and the potential strain on US military stockpiles. This debate requires careful consideration of the strategic and geopolitical consequences of military aid.

This study group, led by Dr. Karen Donfried, is examining key foreign policy debates flowing from Russia’s war against Ukraine. Students discuss and debate the weekly topic with guest speakers.

26th Africa Business Conference (ABC) held at Harvard Business School (HBS)

Panel Director, Mubashir Ekungba

Analysis & Opinions - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Mapping a Way Forward with African Businesses in a Globalized World

| Mar. 19, 2024

Africa is home to approximately 1.4 billion people[1], about 16 percent of the world’s population, yet its continental share in global trade remains below 3 percent[2], according to the World Trade Organization (WTO). This suboptimal proportion of world trade is compounded by Africa's limited intra-continental trade. During the 26th Africa Business Conference (ABC) held at Harvard Business School (HBS) on the 17th of February 20, 2024, industry experts, policymakers, students, faculty members, and entrepreneurs converged to interrogate these concerns and explore opportunities for improving intra-African trade. 

People practice combat skills in urban areas during a training course for national resistance of the Municipal Guard near Kyiv, Ukraine, on Jan. 19, 2024.

AP Photo/Evgeniy Maloletka

Journal Article - International Security

A “Nuclear Umbrella” for Ukraine? Precedents and Possibilities for Postwar European Security

| Winter 2023/24

Europe after the Russo-Ukrainian War must develop a new security structure to defend against any Russian aggression. The safest option is a non-offensive, confidence-building defense. This option includes proposals such as the “spider in the web” strategy and the “porcupine” strategy to provide for European security in a region threatened by Russian expansion—without relying on the threat of nuclear war.

People stuck flowers in remains of the Berlin Wall during a commemoration ceremony to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall at the Wall memorial site at Bernauer Strasse in Berlin, Saturday, Nov. 9, 2019.

AP Photo/Markus Schreiber

Journal Article - International Security

We All Fall Down: The Dismantling of the Warsaw Pact and the End of the Cold War in Eastern Europe

    Author:
  • Simon Miles
| Winter 2023/24

The non-Soviet members of the Warsaw Pact contributed to the end of the Cold War along with the superpowers. These Eastern European states recognized that their relationship with the Soviet Union would impede their success in the post–Cold War world, so they ended the Pact.

Journal Article - International Security

Reining in Rebellion: The Decline of Political Violence in South America, 1830–1929

    Authors:
  • Raúl L. Madrid
  • Luis L. Schenoni
| Winter 2023/24

After a century of rebellion, South America experienced a rapid decline in revolts in the early 1900s. Historical narratives and an analysis of a comprehensive new dataset show that the decrease stemmed in large part from the expansion and professionalization of the region’s militaries, which were driven by an export boom and the threat of interstate conflict.