Science & Technology

443 Items

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Catching Swedish Phish: How Sweden is Protecting its 2018 Elections

    Author:
  • Gabriel Cederberg
| Sep. 07, 2018

Alarmed by Russia’s brazen interference in the 2016 US Election, Sweden began preparing for its September 2018 election in earnest. Over the past year and a half, Sweden has created a comprehensive strategy based on a clear understanding of the threat; it has learned lessons from other targeted elections; and it has developed a whole-of-society defense—mobilizing not just the government, but also the Swedish media and Swedish citizens.

Analysis & Opinions - War on the Rocks

Beyond Killer Robots: How Artificial Intelligence Can Improve Resilience in Cyber Space

| Sep. 06, 2018

Recently, one of us spent a week in China discussing the future of war with a group of American and Chinese academics. Everyone speculated about the role of artificial intelligence (AI), but, surprisingly, many Chinese participants equated AI almost exclusively with armies of killer robots.

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Analysis & Opinions - Lawfare

I Wrote About Russian Election Interference. Then I Was Trolled Online.

| Sep. 04, 2018

A colleague and I recently published an op-ed in Svenska Dagbladet, one of Sweden’s leading daily newspapers, about Russia’s attempts to influence elections in democratic countries. Among the Russian tactics we described was the use of “troll factories” to distribute misinformation. So perhaps we shouldn’t have been surprised when we were attacked online, probably by Russian trolls, after our article posted.

Russian President Vladimir Putin gestures while speaking at a cybersecurity conference in Moscow, Russia, Friday, July 6, 2018. Putin said it's important to develop common cybersecurity standards that take into account interests of all nations. (Sergei Chirikov/Pool Photo via AP)

Sergei Chirikov/Pool Photo via AP

Analysis & Opinions - The Washington Post

Working with Russia on Cybercrime is Like Hiring a Burglar to Protect the Family Jewels

| Sep. 04, 2018

Imagine a bully who’s pounding your head against a wall. When you complain that it hurts and threaten to punch back, he offers to sign an international agreement against bullying. Meanwhile, he keeps pounding your head.

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Analysis & Opinions - Council on Foreign Relations

How Ukraine’s Government Has Struggled to Adapt to Russia’s Digital Onslaught

| Aug. 29, 2018

Last month, I went back to Ukraine and heard the same thing again. Why has this problem persisted, despite a drastic change in the country’s cyber threat landscape over the last three years? The country suffered two power disruptions in 2015 and 2016 and was plagued by the NotPetya ransomware attack last year. If these significant incidents can’t motivate state agencies to work together, what can?

G20 Dinner

Kay Nietfeld/ Pool Photo via AP

Paper - Cyber Security: A Peer-Reviewed Journal

Normative Restraints on Cyber Conflict

| Aug. 28, 2018

Cyber security is a relatively new international problem. A decade ago, it received little attention as an international issue, but since 2013 the Director of National Intelligence has named cyber security risks as the biggest threat facing the USA. Although the exact numbers can be debated, various non-profit organisations have listed hundreds of state-sponsored attacks by a score of countries in the past decade. Many observers have called for laws and norms to manage the growing cyber threat. In this paper the author outlines the key normative restraints on cyber conflict. The author draws on the development of international norms in recent history to offer insights into the formation of normative restraints in the cyber realm.

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Analysis & Opinions - San Francisco Chronicle

Invaders from space — hacks against satellites threaten our critical infrastructure

| Aug. 24, 2018

You may not realize it, but you probably interact with some space object every day. Maybe it’s your car, your television or even your internet — each relies on some space-orbiting satellite to function. Satellites are accessed by millions of devices a day and are robust providers of service. But trusting these satellites as much as we do is risky as they are all extremely vulnerable to cyberattacks.

A cyber threat map adorns a wall of the Cyber Security Operations Center at AEP headquarters in Columbus, Ohio on Wednesday, May 20, 2015.

AP Photo/John Minchillo

Analysis & Opinions - Foreign Affairs

Battlefield Internet: A Plan for Securing Cyberspace

| September/October 2018

The Internet has always been much more than a venue for conflict and competition; it is the backbone of global commerce and communication. That said, cyberspace is not, as is often thought, simply part of the global commons in the way that the air or the sea is. States assert jurisdiction over, and companies claim ownership of, the physical infrastructure that composes the Internet and the data that traverses it. States and companies built the Internet, and both are responsible for maintaining it. Actions taken in the public sector affect the private sector, and vice versa. In this way, the Internet has always been hybrid in nature. 

So, accordingly, is the real cyberwar threat.

A person types on a laptop keyboard in North Andover, Mass, June 19, 2017. (AP Photo/Elise Amendola)

AP Photo/Elise Amendola

Paper - Cyber Security Project, Belfer Center

(Why) Is There a Public/Private Pay Gap?

| August 2018

The government is facing a severe shortage of skilled workers, especially in information technology and cyber security jobs. The conventional wisdom in branches of policy and public administration is that the shortage is driven by low salaries that are not competitive for attracting top talent. Using longitudinal data on high skilled workers between 1993 and 2013, this paper shows that, if anything, government employees earn more than their private sector counterparts. Although government workers tend to earn less in the raw data, these differences are driven by the correlation between unobserved ability and selection into private sector jobs. These results are robust to additional data from the Census Bureau between 2005 and 2016. Instead, this paper shows that a more plausible culprit behind the worker shortage in government is a lack of development opportunities and poor management.