Science & Technology

539 Items

German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere talks to the media during his visit to the central department of fighting internet criminality (ZIT) in Giessen, Germany, Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2017. In background a map showing the amount of cyber attacks in a30 days.

AP Photo/Michael Probst

Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Advancing Cyber Norms Unilaterally: How the U.S. Can Meet its Paris Call Commitments

| January 2023

Establishing norms for state behavior in cyberspace is critical to building a more stable, secure, and safe cyberspace. Norms are defined as “a collective expectation for the proper behavior of actors with a given identity,” and declare what behavior is considered appropriate and when lines have been crossed. Cyberspace is in dire need of such collective expectations. However, despite efforts by the international community and individual states to set boundaries and craft agreements, clear and established cyber norms for state behavior remain elusive. As early as 2005, the UN Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) and UN Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) both aimed to create shared “rules of the road,” but fundamental disagreements between states and a lack of accountability and enforcement mechanisms have prevented these initiatives from substantively implementing cyber norms. As a result, the international community and individual states are left with no accountability mechanisms or safeguards to protect civilians and critical infrastructure from bad actors in cyberspace.

Josephine Wolff

Liza Xiao

- Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Series Explores AI and Algorithm Regulations and Practices

| Fall 2022

This fall, the Belfer Center’s Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program (STPP) brought back the popular AI Cyber Lunch seminar series to explore issues at the forefront of technology and, increasingly, public policy. The hybrid seminar series, organized by Cyber Project Fellow and HKS Adjunct Lecturer in Public Policy Bruce Schneier and STPP Fellow Cathy O’Neil, brought a wide range of speakers to Harvard Kennedy School to discuss how new and emerging technologies can be harnessed to enhance, rather than harm, society.

The Hardin Generating Station

AP Photo/Matthew Brown

Analysis & Opinions - The Atlantic

How to Decarbonize Crypto

| Dec. 06, 2022

Maintaining bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies causes about 0.3 percent of global CO2 emissions. That may not sound like a lot, but it’s more than the emissions of Switzerland, Croatia, and Norway combined. As many cryptocurrencies crash and the FTX bankruptcy moves into the litigation stage, regulators are likely to scrutinize the crypto world more than ever before. This presents a perfect opportunity to curb their environmental damage.

The good news is that cryptocurrencies don’t have to be carbon intensive. In fact, some have near-zero emissions. To encourage polluting currencies to reduce their carbon footprint, we need to force buyers to pay for their environmental harms through taxes.

In this April 20, 2021, file photo, an alert from the Department of Homeland Security's Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency is photographed. Most Americans across party lines have serious concerns about cyber attacks on U.S. computer systems and view China and Russia as major threats.

(AP Photo/Jon Elswick)

Policy Brief - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Internet Superpowers

| November 2022

As inventions go, the Internet stacks up with the best of them: the lightbulb, automobile, maybe even fire. However, it’s time for policymakers to look carefully at how its swift transformation of society has affected freedom. Today’s disconcerting answer is that it breaks some essential tools for a civilized society, writes Steve Johnson. 

Book - W.W. Norton & Company

A Hacker's Mind: How the Powerful Bend Society's Rules, and How to Bend Them Back

| February 2022

A hack is any means of subverting a system’s rules in unintended ways. In A Hacker’s Mind, Bruce Schneier takes hacking out of the world of computing and uses it to analyze the systems that underpin our society: from tax laws to financial markets to democracy. He reveals an array of powerful actors whose hacks bend our economic, political, and legal systems to their advantage, at the expense of everyone else.

A person on the left bends to take pictures of a drone showcased on a platform on the right.

AP Photo/Joe Buglewicz

Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Buying What Works: An Acquisitions Strategy for the Reality of Dual-Use Technologies

| October 2022

In this student research paper, Harvard Kennedy School student Coen Williams finds that  The Department of Defense should implement an “effects-driven” acquisitions system rather than “capabilities-based” to effectively acquire and utilize commercially developed capabilities. An effects-driven acquisitions system will increase the diversity of solutions, and by appropriating money to effects-driven portfolios, Congress can still maintain control of the purse while the Department of Defense can more effectively allocate its appropriated funds.

Announcement - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center’s Eric Rosenbach Named to Secretary of State’s International Security Advisory Board

| Oct. 20, 2022

The U.S. Department of State announced Tuesday, October 18 that Eric Rosenbach, Belfer Center Co-Director and former Pentagon Chief of Staff and Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Global Security, has been named to the Secretary of State’s International Security Advisory Board (ISAB).