Science & Technology

1381 Items

Unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with specialized software and sensors fly during the Technical Concept Experiment at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Calif., Jan. 19, 2024.

Michael Walls/U.S. Navy

Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Unraveling the Political Dynamics Shaping the U.S. Strategy for Technology Leadership

Although there is broad agreement between the two major parties on the desirability of technology leadership, significant sources of tension—and confusion—persist. By examining the political dynamics that led to the enactment of the CHIPS and Science Act, Constanza M. Vidal Bustamante and Douglass Vijay Calidas probe these tensions and seek to assess their likely impact on the federal technology strategy in the coming years.

Image of Vladimir Putin standing in front of a podium

AP Photo

US President Joe Biden points to the crowd after speaking during the League of Conservation Voters Annual Capital Dinner, at The Anthem in Washington, DC, on June 14, 2023.

Andrew Caballero-Reynolds | AFP | Getty Images

Analysis & Opinions - Foreign Policy

Biden Takes Measured Approach on China Investment Controls

| Aug. 19, 2023

Last week, U.S. President Joe Biden signed an executive order that began the process of enacting restrictions on U.S. investment in three technology sectors in China: semiconductors, quantum information technologies, and artificial intelligence. The executive order was accompanied by proposed rulemaking from the U.S. Treasury Department that would impose prohibitions and notification requirements on some investments in Chinese technologies. Although hawks in Congress pushed the administration to adopt broader controls on such investments, cooler heads prevailed, limiting the scope of the draft regulations to these three areas and prioritizing curbs on military applications of these technologies.

ATE student learning to measure output power from a laser

Photo from ATE Impacts 2020-2021

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Lab-to-Market Translation at NSF’s Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships (TIP) Directorate

| June 2023

One major effort through which CHIPS and Science seeks to achieve this is the creation of the Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships (TIP) Directorate at the National Science Foundation (NSF). The TIP Directorate’s mission is to advance use-inspired research at NSF, particularly in areas of technology critical to strategic competition. 

Technicians in clean room learn to make semiconductors

Photo from ATE Impacts 2022-2023

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Community Colleges and the Semiconductor Workforce

| June 2023

Over the last several decades, the U.S.’s domestic semiconductor manufacturing capacity has declined. The CHIPS Act aims to reverse this trend by investing over $50 billion in direct funding and loan subsidies to expand semiconductor research and development and manufacturing in the U.S. This primer focuses on the workforce challenges that will be spurred by this microelectronics industry expansion and proposes how community colleges can play a critical role in addressing these challenges. 

Someone holds a silicon wafer with chips etched into it as Vice President Kamala Harris tours a site where Applied Materials plans to build a $4 billion research facility on Monday, May 22, 2023, in Sunnyvale, Calif.

Jim Wilson/The New York Times via AP, Pool

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Standard Setting: Process, Politics, and the CHIPS Program

  • Sreya Vaidyanathan
  • Arya Thapa
  • Andrew Trzcinski
| June 2023

The CHIPS & Science Act of 2022 outlines an expansive national strategy to preserve and bolster the United States’ national security by ensuring a pathway for a resilient supply chain for semiconductors and other critical and emerging technologies. Targeted provisions in the CHIPS and Science Act aim to address U.S. leadership in domestic and international standards-setting processes. For federal agencies such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), contending with implementation of standards-related mandates within the CHIPS program presents a delicate balancing act between supporting emerging national priorities but preserving the existing industry-driven model for setting standards. 

drawing of math problems

N. Hanacek/NIST

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Technology Primer: Post-Quantum Cryptography

  • Boaz Barak
  • Lily Chen
  • Jack Hidary
  • Vinod Vaikuntanathan
| June 23, 2023

Quantum computers pose a threat to conventional cryptography, putting our information and communication systems at risk. In an effort to sustain the privacy and integrity of our data ecosystems, researchers are turning to post-quantum cryptography (PQC). This publication describes how PQC works, and the governance, application, and public purpose considerations for implementing PQC.