The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Mr. Rahmatullah Nabil was born in Jaghato district of Maidan Wardak province of Afghanistan. He is a civil engineer and speaks fluent Dari, Pashto and English. Before 2002, he served in several branches of UNHCR and he was mainly working on aid supplying to the Afghan refugees. Mr. Nabil has served in several high-profile government functions since 2002 when he joined the Afghan government as Deputy National Security Advisor. He then laid the foundation of Presidential Protection Service (PPS) and has served as the head of the PPS. He managed to create and build this service into one of the best security services of Afghan government which is unique in the region.
In 2010, he was appointed as Director General of the National Directorate of Security (NDS)- the country’s principal intelligence agency and has served in the agency for two years. During his tenure in NDS his vision was to bring reforms in order to increase the effectiveness and operational capability of NDS. After two years, he was appointed as Deputy National Security Advisor and then he rejoined the NDS as acting General Director in September 2013. Mr. Nabil has no political affiliation and has served as high rank military officer with complete political neutrality and has only Afghan citizenship. Mr. Nabil’s was praised with two high military and civilian medals- the Ghazi Ayoub Khan’s medal and the Ghazi Wazir Mohammad Akbar Khan’s medal. Beside these official decorations, Mr. Nabil has also received an appreciation letter from the Afghan Civil Society Association for his effective efforts in the implementation and oversight of human rights in all NDS detention center. He resigned as NDS director in December 2015.
Former Associate Deputy Director of the CIA for Operations (ADDO) Mr. Bruce Valentine was previously a Field Artillery Officer in the United States Army, Valentine joined the CIA in 1994. During the early stage of his career, he held overseas assignments in Central Asia, the Caucuses, and the Balkans. Following September 11, 2001, Valentine served in senior, front-office leadership assignments in a war zone station during two separate assignments. Later, he was Chief of Station in two Balkan locations; in one African location; and in one hostile, denied area. Valentine also served as operational tradecraft instructor and, within CIA Headquarters, directed operational activities at the regional-, hemispheric-, and global-levels. His last position within the Directorate of Operations was as the Associate Deputy Director of the CIA for Operations (ADDO). He is a graduate of Iowa State University with a bachelor’s degree in political science, a graduate of Georgetown University with a master’s degree in international affairs, and a certificate holder from the Harvard Business School Advanced Management Program.