The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Mark Montgomery serves as the Executive Director of the Cyberspace Solarium Commission. He most recently served as Policy Director for the Senate Armed Services Committee under the leadership of Senator John S. McCain.
Mark also served as a nuclear trained surface warfare officer in the U.S. Navy for 32 years in the U.S. Navy, retiring as a Rear Admiral in 2017. He commanded the USS McCampbell (DDG 85) and Destroyer Squadron FIFTEEN. His flag officer assignments included Director of Operations (J3) at U.S. Pacific Command; Commander of Carrier Strike Group 5 embarked on the USS George Washington stationed in Japan; and Deputy Director, Plans, Policy and Strategy (J5), at U.S. European Command.
John Costello is a Senior Director and Lead, Task Force Two for the U.S. Cyberspace Solarium Commission. John is currently appointed as the Senior Advisor to the Director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, and previously served as the Director of Strategy, Policy, and Plans and the Senior Advisor to the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security for Cybersecurity and Communications. Prior to his work at DHS, John served as Congressional Innovation Fellow at U.S House of Representatives Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. As a member of the U.S. Navy, John served in various positions within the National Security Agency and U.S. Cyber Command. John is fluent in Chinese Mandarin and graduated with honors from the Defense Language Institute.
Robert Morgus is the Director of Research and Analysis for Task Force 2 of the U.S. Cyberspace Solarium Commission. Before the Commission, he was the Deputy Director of the Cybersecurity Initiative at New America, where he remains a non-resident Cybersecurity Policy Fellow. At New America, his research focused on mechanisms to counter the spread of offensive cyber capability, cybersecurity and international governance, and Russian internet doctrine. Morgus has spoken about cybersecurity at a number of international forums including NATO’s CyCon, the Global Conference on Cyberspace at The Hague, and CyFy. His research has been published and recognized by the New York Times, Slate, the IEEE, peer-reviewed academic journals, and numerous other national and international outlets. Morgus serves as a Research Advisor for the Global Commission on Internet Governance, as well as the Global Forum on Cyber Expertise, and has served as an expert advisor for the World Economic Forum.