The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Kenneth I. Juster served as U.S. Under Secretary of Commerce from 2001-2005. In this capacity, he was in charge of the Bureau of Industry and Security. Juster oversaw issues at the intersection of business and national security, including strategic trade controls, imports and foreign investments that affect U.S. security, enforcement of anti-boycott laws, and industry compliance with international arms control agreements. He was one of the key architects of the Next Steps in Strategic Partnership initiative between the United States and India. His work related to India was instrumental in transforming the U.S.-India relationship and laid the foundation for the historic civil nuclear agreement between the two countries. In his previous service at the State Department from 1989-1993, Juster was the Deputy and Senior Adviser to Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence S. Eagleburger, and played an instrumental role in establishing and managing U.S. assistance programs to Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Juster, who has also practiced international law and been a senior business executive, is currently a Managing Director at the international investment firm Warburg Pincus, based in New York City. In a series of study group sessions for the Future of Diplomacy Project, Juster will examine the intersection of business and diplomacy, and the impact of trade sanctions and other measures on shaping the negotiation environment.