The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
How unequal are current patterns of modern energy use and emissions? What do we mean by modern energy access and how many are without it? How much energy do we really need for decent living? And how can we achieve universal access to modern energy services in ways that achieve development and climate goals synergistically? These are some of the questions that this seminar will try to shed light on.