The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Kelly Wanser is the Executive Director of SilverLining. She oversees the organization's efforts to promote scientific research, science-based policy, and effective international cooperation in rapid responses to climate change. In that capacity, she has helped develop legislation; testified before Congress; served as a reviewer for the IPCC, NSTC, and NOAA; and launched a research fund. Prior to founding SilverLining, Wanser co-founded—and currently serves as Senior Advisor to—the University of Washington Marine Cloud Brightening Project. Wanser currently sits on the Board of Directors of Dendra Systems, a company that deploys automation and artificial intelligence to restore natural ecosystems. She is also a member of the President's Circle of the National Academy of Sciences, where she works with prominent scientists and science funders to advance strategic priorities for the nation.
Steven Hamburg is Chief Scientist at the Environmental Defense Fund. He ensures the scientific integrity of EDF’s positions and programs, and facilitates collaborations with researchers from a diversity of institutions and countries. He also helps identify emerging science relevant to EDF’s mission. Hamburg plays a leading role in EDF’s research efforts, including work on quantifying methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain and the use of emerging sensor technologies in improving our understanding of air pollution and related impacts on human health. He has been actively involved in biogeochemistry, forest ecology and climate change impacts research for more than 35 years, and has published more than 100 scientific papers.