The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Achieving net zero emissions by mid-century would largely avert the climate crisis, whereas crossing the same threshold at the end of the century would likely lock in for generations climate damages that may prove utterly unacceptable. And yet, the latter scenario seems at least as likely as the former. With what tools would we cope with such an eventuality once emissions reductions have been exhausted?
Wake Smith is a Lecturer in Yale College, where he teaches what is understood to be the world’s first undergraduate survey course on climate engineering. The core of that course will be published in book form in early 2022 by the Cambridge University Press. As a Senior Fellow at the M-RCBG, he has published papers on the aeronautics, costs, and deployment logistics of stratospheric aerosol injection as well as on the proper governance of research into these technologies. He finished his business career in private equity with New York based New State Capital. He previously served as: Chairman and President of Pemco World Air Services; Chief Operating Officer of Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings; and President of the flight training division of Boeing. He started his aviation career as a bankruptcy consultant, advising on the restructurings of much of the US airline industry after deregulation. He holds a BA in History from Yale and an MBA from Harvard.