The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Hussein Kalout is a member of the International Advisory Board at the Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI). Editor-in-chief at CEBRI-Journal. He is a Political Scientist, Professor of International Relations, Special Advisor to the Harvard’s International Council and Research Scholar at Harvard University.
Between 2017 and 2018, he was Special Secretary for Strategic Affairs of Brazil, member of the Council of Ministers of the Chamber of Foreign Trade (CAMEX), and was President of the Brazilian National Commission on Population and Development.
In public administration, he assumed responsibilities such as Director of International Affairs of the Superior Court of Justice and Director of International Legal Cooperation of the Attorney General's Office.
Mr. Kalout has authored numerous op-eds, book chapters, articles and papers in scientific journals including Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, The National Interest, Harvard International Review, Global Discourse (Routledge), Política Externa and Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional. Mr. Kalout was columnist on International Politics in the Brazilian influential newspapers the Estado de S. Paulo (ESTADÃO) and also at Folha de S. Paulo.
Finally, Mr. Kalout has been decorated by several institutions overseas and in Brazil namely the Order of Rio Branco, the Order of Naval Merit, the Order of Military Merit, the Order of Aeronautical Merit, Barão de Tamandaré Medal of Honor, and the Brazilian Army Medal of Honor.
Nick Zimmerman is a Senior Advisor to the Latin American Program’s Brazil Institute at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
Nick previously served in the Obama Administration in a variety of national security capacities as the Senior Policy Advisor to the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, White House National Security Council Director for Brazil and Southern Cone Affairs, and Special Assistant in the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and Western Hemisphere Affairs Country Director.
Nick has been cited, interviewed, and published in an array of media outlets in Europe, Latin America, and the United States, including CNN Brasil, El Faro, the Financial Times, Folha de São Paulo, GloboNews, the Miami Herald, New York Magazine, and Valor Econômico.
He holds a B.A. with honors from Brown University and an M.A. from the Harvard John F. Kennedy School of Government.
Ricardo Zúniga is the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary and Special Envoy for the Northern Triangle in the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. A career member of the Senior Foreign Service, he previously served as a Senior Diplomatic Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center Latin America Program, Director of the International Student Management Office at the National Defense University in Washington, DC, and as U.S. Consul General in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Mr. Zúniga was a Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Western Hemisphere Affairs at the National Security Council from 2012 to 2015. He worked overseas in Mexico, Portugal, Cuba, and Spain. Domestically, Mr. Zúniga served in the State Department’s Office of Cuban Affairs, the U.S. Mission to the Organization of American States, the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, and as the Desk Officer for Uganda and Tanzania.
He was born in Tegucigalpa, Honduras and has a B.A. in Foreign Affairs and Latin American Studies from the University of Virginia.