Erin York explores competing conceptions of politics under autocracy, examining the existence of both faux-democratic institutions as well as historical networks of patronage in the Moroccan context. She provides systematic evidence that institutional systems of horizontal accountability help to level the playing field, creating opportunities for political outsiders to compete for support through by the book activity. But there are limits to this mechanism of political action: the regime’s control of the executive and, in particular, the presence of technocrat appointees weaken its effectiveness.