The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
The Hon Julie Bishop served as Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2013 to 2018 and deputy leader of the Liberal Party from 2007 to 2018. She was a Member of Parliament 1998 to 2019. Ms Bishop was sworn in as Australia's first female Foreign Minister on 18 September 2013, having previously served as Minister as Minister for Education, Science and Training and as the Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Women's Issues. Prior to this, she was Minister for Ageing. Before entering Parliament Ms Bishop was a commercial litigation lawyer at Perth firm Clayton Utz, becoming a partner in 1985, and managing partner in 1994. Ms Bishop graduated with a Bachelor of Laws from the University of Adelaide in 1978 and attended Harvard Business School in Boston in 1996, completing the Advanced Management Program for Senior Managers. In 2017, the University of Adelaide awarded her the Honorary Degree of Doctor of the University for her contribution to Australian parliamentary service. She is currently the CEO and founder of the boutique strategic advisory firm Julie Bishop & Partners.
Federica Mogherini served as High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission from 2014-2019 where she was Europe’s top diplomat, responsible for coordinating foreign policy among 28 countries. In September 2020, she will be Rector of the College of Europe.
During her tenure as High Representative/Vice-President, she was instrumental in forging the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action with Iran and launched the EU’s Global Strategy for Foreign and Security Policy. Previously, Mogherini served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Italy from February to October 2014 and was a Member of the Italian Parliament (Chamber of Deputies), where she was elected for the first time in 2008.
During her terms in parliament, Mogherini was the Head of the Italian Delegation to the NATO Parliamentary Assembly and Vice-President of its Political Committee (2013-2014); member of the Italian Delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (2008-2013); Secretary of the Defence Committee (2008-2013) and member of the Foreign Affairs Committee.
Peter Wittig recently retired from the German Diplomatic Service. He is a five-time Ambassador. He served in Spain, at the UN, in Lebanon and Cyprus before working in the cabinet of two Foreign Secretaries at headquarters. Most recently he was the German Ambassador at the United Nations in New York (2009 - 2014) representing his country in the Security Council, in Washington (2014 - 2018) and in the United Kingdom (2018 - 2020). His expertise include: the Middle East region, conflict resolution and multilateral organisations, transatlantic relations and European Affairs. Before joining the Foreign Service he studied History, Political Science and Law at the Universities of Bonn, Freiburg, Canterbury and Oxford. He taught History of Ideas as a Junior Professor at the University of Freiburg. His PhD thesis dealt with British socialism in the late 19th and early 20th Century. He has published numerous articles on international affairs.