The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Dr. Anina Schwarzenbach is a criminologist and postdoctoral associate at the University of Maryland, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, and a fellow with Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center. Schwarzenbach’s work focuses on political violence and governmental responses, cyber power and threats, policing, and state legitimacy. She is a member of Belfer’s Cyber Project team that has built the National Cyber Power Index 2020, and has been an International Security Program Postdoctoral Fellow (2018-2020).
Prior to that, she was a researcher at the Max-Planck-Institute for Foreign Criminal Law and Criminology in Germany (2013-2018), where she has worked extensively on issues related to institutional discrimination and policing of minorities. Anina Schwarzenbach holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Freiburg, Germany, and a LL.M. and M.A. from the Swiss universities of Bern and Zurich.
Julia Voo is a Cyber Fellow and leads the team behind Belfer's National Cyber Power Index. She was formerly the Research Director for the China Cyber Policy Initiative. Her areas of research concern geotech strategy including the Digital Silk Road, industrial policy, and technical standards for strategic technologies.
Voo has research affiliations with the Future of Humanity Institute (Oxford), the Hague Program for Cyber Norms (Leiden), and the China-Africa Research Initiative (Johns Hopkins). A 2019 graduate of Harvard Kennedy School's mid-career Master in Public Administration program, Julia served earlier at the British Embassy in Beijing where she covered China's cyber and artificial intelligence policy from a commercial perspective, technical standards, and other trade policy issues. She lived in Beijing for seven years with stints at the EU Delegation to China, Carnegie-Tsinghua Centre for Global Policy, and she has spent time at the UK's Cabinet Office. Julia is currently the Global Cyber Security and Tech Policy Strategy lead for HP Inc.