The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Said T. Jawad served concurrently as Afghan Ambassador to the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Mexico from 2003-10. He returned to Afghanistan after September 11, 2001 to assist in the state-building process, where he played a versatile and crucial role in government, serving as President Hamid Karzai's Press Secretary, Chief of Staff and director of the Office of International Relations. In these positions, Jawad formulated and managed strategies, implemented policies, and worked closely with the international community to build and restore state institutions (including the Afghan National Army). He was also instrumental in prioritizing national reforms in Afghanistan, notably in the Ministry of Defense. In addition, he served as the president's principal liaison with the constitutional commission throughout the drafting of the Afghan Constitution and was instrumental in drafting Afghanistan's foreign investment laws.