The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Mme. Florence Parly, Minister of the Armed Forces of France, has served in government for 20 years at the highest level and has extensive experience in the private sector, having spent 15 years working among the senior ranks of France’s largest industrial and transport corporations.
Mme. Parly was born in Boulogne-Billancourt on the 8th May 1963. After graduating from Sciences Po and the National School of Administration, she joined the civilian administrative corps of the Budget Directorate. From 1991 to 1993, she was a junior advisor in the Ministry of Public Service, then in the Ministry of Housing and Equipment, and finally in the Ministry of the Interior. In 1993, she returned to the administrative sector where she was appointed as Head, Protection and Social Security Office in the Budget Directorate, then for housing, equipment, city and urban planning (1994-1995), and finally for culture and audiovisual matters (1995-1997). In 1997, she served as Advisor for budget affairs in Prime Minister Lionel Jospin's Office. She was then appointed Secretary of State for Budget in 2000, a post she vacated in 2002.
After her Government career, Mme. Parly took on the responsibilities of Mission Head in the France Trésor Agency (2003-2004), before becoming Chairwoman of the board, Regional Development Agency of Ile-de-France, until 2006. She then chose to work with national companies, joined Air France and took up the position of Director for Investment Strategy (2006-2008), then Deputy Director General in charge of Cargo (2008-2012), before becoming Deputy Director General in charge of short-haul activities in 2013. She joined SNCF in 2014, first as Assistant Director General, then as Director General of SNCF Voyageurs in 2016. On June 21, 2017, Mme. Parly was appointed Minister for the Armed Forces by President Emmanuel Macron.