The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
A Message from the Executive Editor of International Security
Jacqueline Hazelton discusses the journal's history, future direction, and submission process at the Duck of Minerva blog.
A Conversation with Jacqueline Hazelton, Executive Editor
Read MIT Press's interview with Jacqueline Hazelton, who was named executive editor in March 2022.
International Security in the News
Belfer Center’s International Security Journal Honored for Impact
International Security, the quarterly journal edited at Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and published by The MIT Press, received top rankings for impact in 2019 based on the high number of times the journal's articles were referenced in other publications
Ash Carter, Director of the Belfer Center, said, “International Security has a long history of being a leader in its field. The journal’s mission - to publish and promote insightful analyses of global security issues - is vital to strengthening our understanding of a range of policy challenges.”
International Security is America’s leading peer-reviewed journal of security affairs. It provides sophisticated analyses of contemporary, theoretical, and historical security issues. International Security is edited at Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and is published by The MIT Press.
The growing debate concerning the soundness and direction of international security policies both in the United States and abroad signals a revival of intellectual ferment as well as intuitive uneasiness. Nations are increasingly defining their security not only in the conventional modes of military strength, economic vigor, and governmental stability, but also in terms of capabilities previously less central: energy supplies, science and technology, food, and natural resources. Two hundred years ago, a new state could secure its sovereignty and well-being through an ill-trained militia and a converted merchant fleet. Today, globalization has forced transnational concerns—such as trade, terrorism, and the environment—to be essential elements in the security considerations of any prospering society.
We view international security as embracing all factors that have a direct bearing on the structure of the nation-state system and the sovereignty of its members, with particular emphasis on the use, threat, and control of force. Our goal is to provide timely analyses of these issues through contributions that reflect diverse points of view and varied professional experiences. This interdisciplinary journal is offered as a vehicle for communication among scholars, scientists, industrialists, military and government officials, and members of the public who bear a continuing concern for this aspect of international life.
International Security offers a combination of professional and policy-relevant articles that we believe will contribute to the analysis of particular security problems. For more than thirty years, we have accommodated the broad range of methodologies and perspectives needed to clarify the various positions tendered in the discussion of international security. Our intent is to balance articles of assessment and opinion with those of analysis and research.
This effort is carried forward as a part of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University. It is our expectation that research articles, reviews, debates, reports, documentation, and commentary, when made available regularly, will contribute to the disciplined discourse that distinguishes a profession.
To submit a manuscript to International Security (IS), log on to Editorial Manager, an online submission management system used by more than 6,000 journals. You can access the site at http://www.editorialmanager.com/isec.
Please register as an author and follow the instructions for submitting a manuscript. If you have any questions or encounter problems, please let us know by clicking “Contact Us” in the main navigation bar.
- A length of 10,000 to 15,000 words (including footnotes) is appropriate, but the journal will consider and publish longer manuscripts. Authors of manuscripts with more than 16,000 words should consult the journal’s editors before submission.
- Delete your name or any references that might identify you from the manuscript. IS does not release authors’ names to outside reviewers and, likewise, does not release reviewers’ names to authors.
- Include a cover letter.
- Submit your manuscript as a Word document. Do not send a PDF document.
- For readability, please double-space the text of your submission and use a 12 pt. serif font. Also, please add page numbers.
- Include a summary of 150 to 200 words.
What Is Appropriate for IS?
IS welcomes submissions on all aspects of security affairs. For perspectives on the scope and research agenda of the field, see Joseph S. Nye and Sean M. Lynn-Jones, “International Security Studies: A Report on a Conference on the State of the Field,” International Security, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Spring 1988), pp. 5-27; and Steven E. Miller, “International Security at Twenty-five: From One World to Another,” International Security, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Summer 2001), pp. 5-39. For additional information on what kinds of manuscripts that International Security is looking for, see Teresa Johnson, “Writing for International Security: A Contributor’s Guide,” International Security, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Fall 1991), pp. 171-180. Authors should not, however, limit themselves to the issues and approaches suggested in these articles.
Before submitting a manuscript to IS or any other journal, look at recent issues to get a sense of the general type of article that the journal publishes. Whenever editors gather to discuss why they reject manuscripts, they agree that the number one reason is that many submissions are inappropriate for their journals.
IS is not looking for short, undocumented papers that consist primarily of opinion and advocacy. Every year we turn away many submissions that fall into this category. We also rarely consider highly technical articles that are unlikely to be accessible to a broad audience.
We are interested in serious analyses of contemporary security policy issues, theoretical and conceptual issues in security studies, and historical questions related to war and peace. We define “security” broadly to include issues related to the causes, conduct, and consequences of wars. The editors rarely decide to seek articles on a particular topic, although from time to time we may look for articles on topics that have not been addressed in recent issues of the journal.
IS publishes articles that fall into four broad categories.
Policy. Analyses of contemporary security policy issues.
Theory. Articles that propose, test, refine, or apply theories of international relations that are relevant to the use, threat, and control of force.
History. Articles that offer new information on or interpretations of historical events.
Technology. Analyses of the scientific and technological dimensions of international security.
Of course, these categories overlap to some extent, but we try to strike a balance among them in selecting articles for publication.
In general, manuscripts are more likely to receive serious consideration if they offer one or more of the following:
Originality. We strongly prefer articles that reach new and interesting conclusions or that offer new information or evidence.
Challenges to the conventional wisdom. Articles that reiterate well known and popular views are less likely to be published than those that challenge the conventional academic or policy wisdom. As one member of the journal's editorial board put it: “If nobody is going to disagree with an article, there’s no reason to publish it.”
Coverage of important topics. In general, we prefer articles that address broad topics of major interest. For example, we are more likely to publish an article on the future of U.S.-European relations or the prospects for peace in the twenty-first century than one on civil-military relations in a small country.
Long shelf life. We prefer articles that are not likely to be overtaken by current events and that will be read with interest for perhaps a decade or more.
Accessibility to a wide audience. IS aims to publish articles that can be read by intelligent nonspecialists as well as by academic experts in a particular field.
Of course, not every article in IS meets these criteria, but those that do are more likely to receive positive external reviews and favorable consideration by the editors.
IS is published quarterly. Normally, the process of review and publication takes at least eight months; thus, a manuscript submitted in March would ordinarily not appear before the winter issue. Decisions on manuscripts ordinarily take no more than three to four months; the editing and publication process takes between five and six. When authors are asked to revise, the process may take longer.
How Does the Review Process Work?
One or more editors read each manuscript that IS receives. If the manuscript appears suitable for the journal, it is sent to two or three external reviewers.
The review process is doubly blind: the author should remove all identifying references from the manuscript before submission, and we provide anonymous comments to the author when the review is returned. Reviews are only sent to authors when they offer useful and constructive comments.
Manuscripts that receive positive external reviews are circulated to all of the journal’s editors (Steven Miller, Owen Coté, Jacqueline Hazelton, and Amanda Pearson), who then select those that will be published from this short list of leading contenders. We repeat this process for each issue; few articles are accepted and then held over as part of a backlog for publication in a future issue. This policy ensures that we accept only the very best of each group of leading contenders and that we have flexibility to publish articles rapidly.
In some cases, we ask an author to revise and resubmit an article without making a commitment to publish it. We often accept such revised manuscripts, but several are rejected each year. On a case-by-case basis, we decide whether to circulate revised submissions to the external reviewers or only to the journal’s editors.
Policy on Simultaneous Submissions
IS does not object to simultaneous submission of manuscripts to other publications, but we do ask to be informed if a manuscript is under consideration at another journal. We have adopted this policy because we realize that authors often are under pressure to publish quickly and we often take several months to reach a decision.
Policy on Previous Publication
If a manuscript has been published previously or will appear elsewhere soon, its chances of acceptance by IS will probably be reduced. Such issues, however, are handled on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the importance of the topic, the quality of the work, and the attention that it will receive in another publication.
How Often May Authors Publish in IS?
IS has a policy of not publishing any author more than once a year. We occasionally may make exceptions for coauthored articles. This rule does not apply to correspondence submissions.
Simultaneous Submissions to IS?
IS generally prefers only one submission per author at any given time. The editors will occasionally consider simultaneous submissions, but if two or more articles by the same author are accepted, publication of the additional article(s) will be deferred for at least a year.
International Security welcomes correspondence on articles published in the journal. We cannot publish every letter we receive, but we believe that exchanges between article authors and their critics can be interesting and informative. The journal’s policy is to offer article authors the opportunity to respond to each letter in the issue in which the letter is published. Letters should be no more than 1,000 words long. The journal attempts to publish letters within a year of the publication of the article to which they respond. Letters should be submitted as soon as possible after publication of an article.
Book Review Essays
We solicit most of the book review essays in IS. If you want to write a book review essay, please contact us and we will let you know if we are interested. We sometimes receive unsolicited book review essays, and they pass through the normal review process.
How to Propose an Article
If you have a manuscript that you would like to submit to IS but you are unsure whether it is “right” for the journal, email us to ask whether we are interested. Please send a summary of the paper and a description of its length, methods, etc.
Please bear in mind that it is impossible to evaluate manuscripts that we have not seen, but we can tell you whether, for example, we have just accepted another article on the same topic. We can also assess whether the topic and approach are suitable for IS and whether the editors might have a particular interest in considering your paper.
International Security Style Guide
The journal’s style conventions, set forth below, should be observed if a manuscript is accepted. Notes must also follow the format set forth on the following pages.
Authors are responsible for accuracy of facts and citations. The editors will raise questions and supply information to the best of our ability. The journal does not, however, have the staff to check the accuracy of quotations, citations, numbers, and facts; this must remain the responsibility of the author.
The author is responsible for providing camera-ready art and appropriate permissions for figures and graphs; the editors can arrange for drafting, generally at the author’s expense. Tables need only be legible; they will be typeset.
In general, limit number of citations to three or four of the most important; keep discursive/tangential to an absolute minimum; avoid quotations. If a quote is germane it belongs in the text. Otherwise, cut.
Once a manuscript has been accepted by the journal, the process of editing and publishing is characterized by intense cooperative effort to make each piece the best it can possibly be, despite difficult deadlines. The editors’ suggestions, however energetically argued, are just that (except on matters of basic style and format as noted in this style sheet). An article remains the author’s work, not the journal’s; accordingly, the author has final responsibility for content and presentation.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy of facts and citations. The editors will raise questions and supply information to the best of our ability. The journal does not, however, have the staff to check the accuracy of quotations, citations, numbers, and facts; this must remain the responsibility of the author.
The journal’s goal is to publish cumulative scholarship and to foster debate about the substance of its contents, not about the authors’ intentions. In service of these goals, authors are encouraged to begin articles with a summary introduction that lays out for readers the question being addressed, what the argument is, how it builds on or takes issue with preceding scholarship, what is new about the research or argument, and why it matters. This may be the most important part of your article and the hardest to write. Readers want to know: What questions do you address? Why and how have these questions arisen? What answers will you offer? Do you consult new sources? Do you settle outstanding questions? Mandate rethinking basic issues? Suggest certain policy choices or areas for further research? For examples, see Karl Lautenschläger, “The Submarine in Naval Warfare, 1901–2001,” International Security 11, no. 3 (Winter 1986/87): 94–95, https://doi.org/10.2307/2538886; and John J. Mearsheimer, “A Strategic Misstep: The Maritime Strategy and Deterrence in Europe,” International Security 11, no. 2 (Fall 1986): 3–5, https://doi.org/10.2307/2538957.
Early in the piece, direct the reader to important previous work. Place your article in context by providing a note or notes that comprise a bibliography of the relevant literature. For examples, see Robert D. Blackwill, “Conceptual Problems of Conventional Arms Control,” International Security 12, no. 4 (Spring 1988): 40n33, https://doi.org/10.2307/2538993; and Barry R. Posen and Stephen Van Evera, “Defense Policy and the Reagan Administration: Departure from Containment,” International Security 8, no. 1 (Summer 1983): 6n7, 9n13, https://doi.org/10.2307/2538484. Feel free to include argument as well as sources in your notes.
See below for a detailed style guide on references.
Ours and Theirs
The journal is an international publication, so references to "us" and "them" should be avoided in favor of specific reference to "U.S. allies," "the Japanese economy," "NATO budgets," and the like.
However international in content, the journal uses only American spellings (defense, mobilization, armor). British spellings should be retained only in quoted material, titles, and names; otherwise all British spellings (defence, mobilisation, armour) should be converted by the author. For preferred spellings, see Webster’s Eleventh Collegiate Dictionary.
The use of headings and subheadings (to the third level) is encouraged, particularly in longer articles, to help the reader follow your argument. Format headings as follows:
- Level 1 title case, italics, no bold face.
- Level 2 normal font (no bold face, no italic, no underline), all caps.
- Level 3 paragraph indent, normal font (no bold face, no italic, no underline), all caps, ends with a period, run in first sentence.
Explanation of Terms
Especially at the outset, it is crucial to be precise in defining key terms, particularly those that will be integral to the discussion throughout. Frequent use of fuzzy concept words should be avoided.
The best IS articles, even those that focus on current issues, will be read for many years. Acronyms, colloquialisms, and terms of art may not be as well known in a decade; please provide explanations accordingly.
Journal policy is to mention the anonymous reviewers if you found the comments helpful, but don’t thank the editorial staff, because we are just doing our jobs. Also, do not mention the number of reviewers.
Authors may include an online-only appendix with their article. Materials can be uploaded to the International Security Dataverse (https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/isec) data repository hosted by Harvard University. The appendix will be assigned a DOI and linked to in the published article. Introduce with “see the online appendix at [insert DOI].” Subsequent citations do not need to include the DOI.
The journal will contact authors during production with instructions for uploading material
Consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, on usage, format, punctuation, and other questions not covered herein.
Spell out common abbreviations in running text, including “note,” “paragraph,” “i.e.,” and “e.g.” Use abbreviations in parentheses or in a simple citation.
Spell out acronyms where they first appear, including all university names (e.g., Massachusetts Institute of Technology).
Professional titles should be capitalized when preceding a person’s name and used as part of the name, and lowercased when mentioned after a person’s name or in prose. Military and religious titles follow the same rule. Examples:
- the president; George Washington, first president of the United States; President Washington;
- King Abdullah II; the king of Jordan
- the chairman; Michael G. Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; Admiral Mullen
- the ayatollah; Ayatollah Khomeini
Exception, named professorships should always be capitalized:
- Erica Chenoweth, Ph.D. is the Frank Stanton Professor of the First Amendment at Harvard Kennedy School
An author wishing to call particular attention to a word or phrase in quoted material may italicize it but must tell readers what has been done, by means of such formulas as “italics mine,” “italics added,” “emphasis added,” or “emphasis mine.” Occasionally it may be important to point out that italics in a quotation were indeed in the original. Here the usual phrase is “italics in the original” or, for example, “De Quincey’s italics.” This information appears either in parentheses following the quotation or in a source note to the quotation. If there are italics in the original of the passage quoted, the information is best enclosed in brackets and placed directly after the added italics.
No bulleted lists. Numbered lists in running text are fine but not indented numbered lists. Style: (1), (2), (3).
Set new terms in quotations, not italics.
Do not insert a comma in page numbers (e.g., 1000), but do for other numbers in text.
The preferred use is U.S. (adj.) United States (noun) not American/America; Soviet Union, not USSR, but Russia after 1991.
Replace capitals (e.g., Moscow, Washington, Berlin, Paris) with states (Russia/Soviet Union, United States, Germany, Paris) or adj.+ “officials” (e.g., Russian/Soviet officials, U.S. government). After making the change, check to ensure that the subject/verb agreement in the sentence is accurate. (For example, London is nervous = British officials are nervous.)
Notes and References
These examples demonstrate the basic International Security note format; when in doubt, check the Chicago Manual of Style and provide all bibliographic information in a format that most closely resembles the following.
General Rules for Notes
- Avoid quotations, extracts, tables, and paragraphing in notes. Do not use “op. cit.” For a note that repeats the citation in the previous note, use “ibid.” followed by the page number. Example: Ibid., 72. Do not use “ibid.” if the preceding note contains more than the one reference.
- Use two-letter USPS style (CA, MA). State or country should follow if place of publication is ambiguous. Major cities, such as Los Angeles and Baltimore, need no state abbreviation. When the publisher’s name includes the state name, the abbreviation is not needed (e.g., Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1994).
- Anglicize foreign place names and retain the standard English version of publisher’s name. Example: Moscow: Gospoltizdat, 1949.
- Foreign titles should use sentence-style capitalization, followed by translated titles in the same format, enclosed in brackets. Short citations should use the original title, not the translation.
- “Zhongguo bu shi yi nu jiu shitai de xiangbalao” [China isn’t a bumpkin who in a fit of anger loses control], Huanqiu shibao [Global times], September 16, 2010.
- Henryk Wereszycki, Koniec sojuszu trzech cesarzy [The end of the Three Emperors’ League] (Warsaw: PWN, 1977).
- Separate notes in a note string with a semicolon.
- Shortened citations should include author’s last name, title of the work cited (usually shortened if more than four words), and page numbers. Example: Morley, Poverty and Inequality, 43; and Schwartz, “Nationals and Nationalism,” 138.
- Provide full page number range, that is, 163–167, and use an en dash instead of a hyphen.
- Spell out ampersands in book titles and publisher names, but leave in journal titles.
- Do not edit quotes for style or grammatical accuracy.
- Acronyms of institutional publishers may be used when introduced in an earlier note [e.g., GPO, FRUS, IISS, National Security Council (NSC)].
- Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, Annual Report to the Congress, Fiscal Year 1984 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office [GPO], 1984), 127.
- Excerpts from Leahy to Hull, May 16, 1944, Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), 1945: Conference of Berlin, vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1960), 265.
- Excerpts from Leahy to Hull, May 16, 1944, FRUS, 1945: Conference of Berlin, vol. 1, 262.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), The Military Balance, 1987–88 (London: IISS, 1987).
Include author’s middle initial, if available. If single note cites multiple works by the same author, spell out author’s full name each time.
- John J. Mearsheimer, Conventional Deterrence (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983), 163–164.
- Kathryn Parker Boudett, Elizabeth A. City, and Richard J. Murnane, eds., Data Wise: A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Assessment Results to Improve Teaching and Learning, rev. ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2013).
Remove the words “The,” “Group,” “Co.,” “Company,” “Publishers,” and “Publishing,” from the names of publishers.
- Houghton Mifflin not Houghton Mifflin Co.
- W. W. Norton not W. W. Norton & Company
- But: Harvard University Press
Reprint, Revised, and Enlarged Editions
Bernard Brodie and Fawn M. Brodie, From Crossbow to H-Bomb, rev. and enl. ed. (New York: Dell, 1962; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973).
Chapter in a Book
- Edward N. Luttwak, “The Operational Level of War,” in Steven E. Miller, ed., Conventional Forces and American Defense Policy: An International Security Reader (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986), 211–229.
Volume in a Series
Use Arabic numerals for volumes even if roman in original. Lowercase vol. Use chap. (chapter) where appropriate.
- Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower, vol. 2, The President (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), chap. 7.
- The Complete Tales of Henry James, ed. Leon Edel, vol. 5, 1883–1884 (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1963), 32–33.
Remove “the” from the title of newspapers, magazines, and journals, even if it’s part of the official title, except for non-English titles (e.g., Der Spiegel).
Include a digital object identifier (DOI) for all applicable articles. If a DOI isn’t available, use a permalink (also known as a stable URL or persistent URL). Use a slash for a year or month range (e.g.: Fall 2006/07 and April/May 2007).
- Michael Beckley, “The Power of Nations: Measuring What Matters,” International Security 43, no. 2 (Fall 2018): 74, https://doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00328.
- Camilla T.N. Sørensen, “That Is Not Intervention; That Is Interference with Chinese Characteristics: New Concepts, Distinctions, and Approaches Developing in the Chinese Debate and Foreign and Security Policy Practice,” China Quarterly, published ahead of print, March 4, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305741018001728.
Magazines, Newspapers, Press Releases
Titles of magazine and newspaper articles are placed in quotes like titles of journal articles, but articles are usually cited by date only, even if publication is numbered by volume and issue. Include either page numbers or a URL.
- Gerard C. Smith, “Time is Running Out,” Newsweek, January 31, 1983, 8.
- Steven Lee Meyers, Ellen Barry, and Max Fisher, “How India and China Have Come to the Brink over a Remote Mountain Pass,” New York Times, July 26, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/26/world/asia/dolam-plateau-china-india-bhutan.html.
- Office of the Press Secretary, “Remarks by President Obama and President Xi of the People’s Republic of China in Joint Press Conference” (Washington, D.C.: White House, September 25, 2015).
Cite web-only press releases as you would a website (see below).
Paper and Reports
Reports, policy briefs, fact sheets, and the like that are published under the imprimatur of an organization should be treated essentially as books.
- Andrew Chubb, Exploring China’s "Maritime Consciousness": Public Opinion on the South and East China Sea Disputes (Perth, Australia: Perth USAsia Center, 2014).
- United Nations Mission in Afghanistan (UNMA), Afghanistan Annual Report 2011: Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (Kabul: UNMA, February 2012).
- Stephen T. Hosmer, Operations against Enemy Leaders (Santa Monica, CA.: RAND, 2001).
- National Security Strategy of the United States of America (Washington, D.C.: White House, December 2017).
- European External Action Service, A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy (Brussels: European Union, June 2016), 8.
Papers in a Series
If the series title is included, it is capitalized headline-style, but it is neither italicized nor put in quotation marks or parentheses. Some series are numbered; many are not. The number (if any) follows the series title with no intervening comma unless vol. or no. is used.
- Desmond Ball, Targeting for Strategic Deterrence, Adelphi Paper 185 (London: IISS, Summer 1983), 1.
- Omar McDoom, Who Kills? Social Influence, Spatial Opportunity, and Participation in Intergroup Violence, Political Science and Political Economy Working Paper Series (London: London School of Economics, 2011).
Dissertations and Theses
- Stephen W. Van Evera, “Causes of War” (PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1984), 1.
- Laura McNamara, “Ways of Knowing about Weapons: The Cold War’s End at the Los Alamos National Laboratory” (PhD diss. University of New Mexico, 2001).
Papers Presented at Meetings
- Benjamin Sims, “The Uninvention of the Nuclear Weapons Complex? A Transactional View of Tacit Knowledge” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Social Studies of Science, Montreal, Canada, October 11–13, 2007), http://www.sonline.org/ProgramSynopsis060907.pdf.
- Alexander L. George, “Case Studies and Theory Development” (paper presented at the Second Annual Symposium on Information Processing in Organizations, Carnegie Mellon University, October 15–16, 1982), 2.
M. Taylor Fravel, “China’s Military Rise: Assessing Military Capabilities and Political Influence” (unpublished manuscript, 2011).
Legal and Public Documents
Consult The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation published by the Harvard Law Review Association for more extensive examples of citations for legal works.
Laws and Statutes
“Public laws,” or statutes, are first published as separately as slip bills, then collected in annual volumes of the United States Statutes At Large (abbreviated as “Stat.”) as session laws. Later they are incorporated into the United States Code (U.S.C.).
- Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. no. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2012).
Bills and Resolutions
Congressional bills (proposed laws) and resolutions are published in pamphlet form (slip bills). In citations, bills or resolutions originating in the House of Representatives are abbreviated “H.R.” or “H.R. Res.,” and those originating in the Senate, “S.” or “S. Res.” The title of the bill (if there is one) is followed by the bill number, the number of the Congress, a section number (if relevant), and the year of publication in parentheses.
- Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act of 2019, S. 178, 116th Cong. 1st sess., September 12, 2019, https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/178/text?forma….
Congressional Reports and Testimonies
- Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, The Mutual Security Act of 1956, 84th Cong., 2d sess., 1956, S. Rept. 2273, 20.
- Hearing on H.R. 5005, The Homeland Security Act of 2002, Day 3, before the Select Comm. on Homeland Security, 107th Cong., 2nd sess., July 17, 2002 (statement of David Walker, Comptroller General of the United States), 203.
Websites, Blogs, and Social Media
Include as much of the following as can be determined: title or description of the specific page, title or description of the site as a whole, and owner or sponsor of site. Also include a publication date or date of revision or modification. If no such date can be determined, include an access date. If a site ceases to exist before publication or if the information cited has been modified or deleted, this context should be included in the text or note.
- “Nuclear Power in the World Today,” World Nuclear Association, February 2018, http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Current-and-Future-Generation/The-Nuc….
- “Sanctions Programs and Country Information,” Office of Foreign Assets Control, U.S. Department of the Treasury, https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/financial-sanctions/sanctions-p…, accessed August 11, 2022.
Include “blog” if not in formal title of the publication.
- Eliza Gheorghe, “Iran’s Nuclear Program Seems to Be Accelerating. Will Saudi Arabia Take a Similar Path?,” Monkey Cage (blog), Washington Post, July 12, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/07/12/irans-nuclear-weapon….
- Sewell Chan, “Buzz over Mayor’s ‘Get a Life’ Remark,” Empire Zone (blog), New York Times, June 6, 2007, http://empirezone.blogs.nytimes.com/.
- Barack Obama (@BarackObama), “Toni Morrison was a national treasure, as good a storyteller, as captivating, in person as she was on the page,” Twitter, August 6, 2019, 8:40 a.m., https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/1158764847800213507.
Any third-party data used in an article should be cited, the same as other sources. Include the dataset author(s), dataset name, version number (if any), place of publication, data repository or institution, and a persistent identifier (such as a DOI).
- Joakim Kreutz, “How and When Armed Conflicts End: Introducing the UCDP Conflict Termination Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research 47, no. 2 (2010): 243–250, doi.org/10.1177/0022343309353108.
- Elizabeth Boschee et al., Integrated Crisis Early Warning System Weekly Event Data, V348, 2018, Harvard Dataverse, https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/QI2T9A.
- Monty G. Marshall, Ted Robert Gurr, and Keith Jagger, Polity IV Project, Center for Systemic Peace, 2014, http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscrdata.html.
- Eliza Gheorghe, appendix for “Proliferation and the Logic of the Nuclear Market,” V1, March 5, 2019, Harvard Dataverse, https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/70TJHT.
Podcasts and YouTube Videos
- Stanley McChrystal, interview by Thomas Krasnican and Nick Paraiso, “General Stanley McChrystal on Military Leadership and Policymaking,” Thank You for Your Service, podcast, March 5, 2019, https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/general-stanley-mcchrystal/id1441…;
- Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, YouTube, April 10, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?vgvS4efEakpY.
Interviews and Speeches
When there are two or more authors, specify which author did the interview. For interviews conducted remotely, add “phone” before “interview” or use “email correspondence” in place of interview. Location is not needed. For short citations, include the date only if interview is with the same person but on different dates.
- Author interview with Max G. Manwaring, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, March 11, 2010.
- Author interview with former Fort Detrick pilot plant shift supervisor, Frederick, Maryland, March 22, 2008.
- Robert Gates, “Russian and Chinese Assertiveness Poses New Foreign Policy Challenges,” interview by Fareed Zakaria (Washington, DC: Council on Foreign Relations, May 21, 2014), http://www.cfr.org/defense-and-security/russian-chinese-assertiveness-p….
- Bill Keller, executive editor of the New York Times, interview by John Mueller, Berkeley, California, April 9, 2011.
- Short citation: Keller interview.
(For short citations, include the date only if the citations include other interviews of the same people but on different dates.)
Citations of speeches should include the author, location, date, and information on where the speech can be read or viewed, if available.
- Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah, speech at Resistance Culture Conference in Beirut, Al-Manar, May 23, 2006.
- Ira L. Baldwin, speech given at Fort Detrick Silver Anniversary Luncheon, New York City, New York, May 2, 1967, file 13-II AT, folder 69, American Society for Microbiology Archives, 1–22.
- The Grugq, “A Short Course in Cyber Warfare,” keynote at Black Hat Asia 2018 conference,
- A published speech should include a title and the publication where it appears. A video of a speech (e.g., on YouTube) should be cited like other video recordings, including a URL.
- Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, YouTube, April 10, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?vgvS4efEakpY.
Manuscript Collections and Archives
- For archival material, give the title and the date, followed by all other bibliographical and locating information, in order from most to least specific. Use the same sequence consistently throughout the work.
- For collections consulted online, include a URL or database name.
- Use quotation marks for specific titles, but not for generic names such as report or minutes.
- Capitalize generic names if part of a formal heading on a manuscript, and lowercase if merely descriptive.
- A citation of a letter starts with the name of the letter writer, followed by to, followed by the name of the recipient.
- Given names may be omitted if identities are clear from context.
- The word letter can be omitted, but other forms of communication (telegram, memorandum) should be specified.
- Letters and the like in private collections can be cited like other archival material. Items owned by the author or a private collection can be listed as “in author’s possession” or “private collection,” respectively, and a location can be omitted.
- For archives and/or collections cited repeatedly, introduce an abbreviation on first mention and use it thereafter (see first and third examples below).
- FDR-Ickes, June 23, 1941, folder “Interior-Ickes, Harold L., 1941,” box 55, President’s Secretary’s File, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York (henceforth PSF FDRL).
- Leven C. Allen to Joint Chiefs of Staff, May 26, 1950, and memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, n.d., CCS 383.21 Korea (3-19-45), sec. 21, Records of the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff, Record Group 218, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
- John F. Kennedy, “Appeasement at Munich,” honors thesis, 1940, box 2, Personal Papers (PP), John Fitzgerald Kennedy Presidential Library (JFKL), Boston, Massachusetts.
- Presidential Directive/NSC-59, “Nuclear Weapons Employment Policy,” July 25, 1980, National Security Archive, George Washington University, Washington, D.C., https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/nukevault/ebb390/docs/7-25-80%20PD%2059.pdf.
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79 John F. Kennedy Street, Box 53
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The Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University is IS’s editorial headquarters. The editorial staff based at the Belfer Center is responsible for selecting and editing articles. In addition to housing IS, the Belfer Center runs research programs on international security, the environment, technology, and public policy. Belfer Center research fellows often contribute to IS while they are in residence, but IS is not a “house journal” for the Belfer Center. We welcome and encourage submissions from all authors.
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Why does IS publish articles with large numbers of footnotes?
IS encourages authors to cite their sources fully and to provide bibliographical footnotes that list references on a particular topic for three reasons.
First, it is standard scholarly practice to provide documentation to indicate the source of information or to credit another writer for having made a particular argument. As a scholarly journal, IS makes every effort to follow such practices.
Second, much of the information in the field of international security studies is subject to dispute. Governments have strong incentives to manipulate information. Militaries and intelligence organizations often believe they need to conceal data. By providing citations to the sources of their information, IS articles allow readers to judge for themselves whether the information is reliable.
Third, footnotes with numerous citations to other articles and books can help readers to pursue further research on a particular topic. IS articles are assigned in many university courses, so we encourage authors to include brief guides to the literature in their footnotes.
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Do I have to be a “big name” to publish in IS?
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How long should an IS submission be?
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Does IS commission or solicit articles?
IS rarely commissions articles. In some cases, however, IS will solicit replies to particularly controversial articles. For example, when IS accepted John Mearsheimer's winter 1994/95 article, “The False Promise of International Institutions,” the editors solicited replies that later appeared in the summer 1995 issue. By organizing such sections, we offer authors an opportunity to defend their work and ensure that the exchange appears in a single issue where readers can examine all of the various arguments.
Does IS publish book reviews?
Yes, IS does occasionally publish review essays. Most of the book review essays are solicited, but we welcome proposals. Contact us via email if you are interested in reviewing a particular book or books.
Who are the external reviewers for IS?
We select qualified reviewers from across the field of international security studies. We rely particularly heavily on members of the IS editorial board, authors who have published in the journal, and present and former research fellows at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
What is the acceptance rate for manuscripts submitted to IS?
The acceptance rate varies from year to year, but it is currently around 5 percent. In most years, we receive 350 to 400 manuscripts and publish 16 to 20 articles.
If I submit an article, do I have to follow the IS style sheet?
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We usually reach a decision in two or three months. When a manuscript is clearly unsuitable for the journal, we often decide much faster. Sometimes, however, it may take longer than three months. In such cases, delays in receiving comments from external reviewers or the fact that the manuscript is one of many strong contenders for publication usually explains the delay.
Does IS object if I simultaneously submit a manuscript to another journal?
No, we have no objections to simultaneous submissions, provided that we are informed. Because we accept only a small proportion of submitted manuscripts and sometimes take several months to decide, we think it is only fair to allow authors the option to submit their work elsewhere.
How long does it take for articles to appear after acceptance?
The lag time between acceptance and publication varies, but it is rarely less than four months. Articles usually appear about eight months after they have been submitted.
Will IS publish articles that have appeared elsewhere?
IS occasionally publishes articles that will also appear in books or in different form in another publication. All other things being equal, simultaneous or future publication elsewhere will hurt a manuscript’s chances of being accepted at IS. The editors decide on such manuscripts on a case-by-case basis. Publication in IS usually becomes more likely if the manuscript is on an extremely important topic, is of exceptional quality, will not appear elsewhere until long after it has been published in IS, will be published in an obscure or inaccessible book or periodical, or will appear elsewhere in a significantly different form.
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Yes, authors of articles each receive three complimentary copies, and authors of correspondence receive one complimentary copy. Additional copies can be ordered from MIT Press.
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To learn more about the journal, please read the article by Steven E. Miller, “International Security at Twenty-five: From One World to Another,” International Security, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Summer 2001), pp. 5-39.
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All questions or comments should be directed to:
Belfer Center for Science & International Affairs
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Cambridge, MA 02138
Elizabeth M. F. Grasmeder / Leaning on Legionnaires: Why Modern States Recruit Foreign Soldiers
Congratulations to Elizabeth M. F. Grasmeder, winner of the American Political Science Association's Catherine McArdle Kelleher Best International Security Article Award. The award seeks to recognize the best peer-reviewed articles in the field of international security and security studies each year. The winning article by Grasmeder, "Leaning on Legionnaires: Why Modern States Recruit Foreign Soldiers," appeared in the Summer 2021 issue.
Yasuhiro Izumikawa / Network Connections and the Emergence of the Hub-and-Spokes Alliance System in East Asia
Congratulations to Yasuhiro Izumikawa, winner of the Outstanding Article Award in the International History and Politics Section of the American Political Science Association (APSA). The Outstanding Article Award recognizes exceptional peer-reviewed journal articles representing the mission of the International History and Politics Section, including innovative work that brings new light to events and processes in international politics, encourages interdisciplinary conversations between political scientists and historians, and advances historiographical methods. The winning article by Izumikawa, "Network Connections and the Emergence of the Hub-and-Spokes Alliance System in East Asia," appeared in the Fall 2020 issue.
Henry Farrell and Abraham L. Newman / Weaponized Interdependence
Congratulations to Henry Farrell and Abraham L. Newman, winner of the ISSS Best Security Article Award from the International Security Studies Section of the International Studies Association. The Best Security Article Award seeks to recognize the best security article published in an academic journal in the prior year. The winning article by Farrell and Newman, "Weaponized Interdependence: How Global Economic Networks Shape State Coercion," appeared in the Summer 2019 issue.
Andrea Gilli and Mauro Gilli / Why China Has Not Caught Up Yet
Congratulations to Andrea Gilli and Mauro Gilli, winner of the Best Research Article on U.S. Foreign Policy and Grand Strategy Award from America in the World Consortium. The Best Research Article award seeks to recognize the best peer-reviewed articles in the field of U.S. foreign policy and grand strategy. The winning article by Gilli and Gilli, "Why China Has Not Caught Up Yet: Military-Technological Superiority and the Limits of Imitation, Reverse Engineering, and Cyber Espionage," appeared in the winter 2018/2019 issue.
Michael Beckley / The Power of Nations
Congratulations to Michael Beckley, winner of the Best Article Award of the International Security (formerly International Security and Arms Control) organized section of the American Political Science Association. The Best Article Award seeks to recognize the best peer-reviewed articles in the field of international security and security studies broadly defined each year. The winning article by Beckley, “The Power of Nations: Measuring What Matters,” appeared in the fall 2018 issue.
Christopher Darnton / Archives and Inference: Documentary Evidence in Case Study Research and the Debate over U.S. Entry into World War II
Congratulations to Christopher Darnton, winner of the Outstanding Article Award in International History and Politics. The award seeks to recognizes exceptional peer-reviewed journal articles representing the mission of the International History and Politics section of APSA, including innovative work that brings new light to events and processes in international politics, encourages interdisciplinary conversations between political scientists and historians, and advances historiographical methods. The winning article by Darnton, “Archives and Inference: Documentary Evidence in Case Study Research and the Debate over U.S. Entry into World War II,” appeared in the winter 2017/18 issue.
Lise Morjé Howard and Alexandra Stark / How Civil Wars End: The International System, Norms, and the Role of External Actors
Congratulations to Lise Morjé Howard and Alexandra Stark, winners of the Best Security Article Award from the International Security Studies Section (ISSS) of the International Studies Association. The award seeks to recognize an article by an ISA member on any aspect of security studies that excels in originality, significance, and rigor, published in the prior calendar year. Howard and Stark’s winning article, “How Civil Wars End: The International System, Norms, and the Role of External Actors,” appeared in the winter 2017/18 issue.
Keir A. Lieber and Daryl G. Press / The New Era of Counterforce
Congratulations to Keir A. Lieber and Daryl G. Press, winners of the Best Article Award of the International Security (formerly International Security and Arms Control) organized section of the American Political Science Association. The Best Article Award seeks to recognize the best peer-reviewed articles in the field of international security and security studies broadly defined each year. The winning article by Lieber and Press, “The New Era of Counterforce: Technological Change and the Future of Nuclear Deterrence,” appeared in the spring 2017 issue.
Aisha Ahmad / The Security Bazaar
Congratulations to Aisha Ahmad, inaugural winner of the Best Security Article Award from the International Security Studies Section (ISSS) of the International Studies Association. The award is meant to recognize an article by an ISA member on any aspect of security studies that excels in originality, significance, and rigor, published in the prior calendar year. Ahmad's winning article, “The Security Bazaar: Business Interests and Islamist Power in Civil War Somalia,” appeared in the winter 2014/15 issue. Watch the Belfer Center's Author Chat with Aisha Ahmad about her article.
Joshua R. Itzkowitz Shifrinson / Deal or No Deal?
Congratulations to Joshua R. Itzkowitz Shifrinson, winner of the DPLST Article Award from the Diplomatic Studies Section of the International Studies Association. This annual award recognizes the article that best advances the theoretical and empirical study of diplomacy—particularly articles that attempt to connect the study of diplomacy with broader issues and trends in the discipline. Shifrinson's winning article, "Deal or No Deal? The End of the Cold War and the U.S. Offer to Limit NATO Expansion" (Spring 2016), is freely available. Check out the Belfer Center's announcement for additional details and view their Author Chat with Mr. Shifrinson.
Michael Beckley / The Myth of Entangling Alliances
Michael Beckley's "The Myth of Entangling Alliances: Reassessing the Security Risks of U.S. Defense Pacts" (International Security, Spring 2015) received an Honorable Mention in the 2016 competition for the Outstanding Article Award presented by the International History and Politics Section of the American Political Science Association (APSA). View the Belfer Center's Author Chat with Mr. Beckley for a discussion of the article.
Mark S. Bell / Beyond Emboldenment
Congratulations to Mark S. Bell, whose article “Beyond Emboldenment: How Acquiring Nuclear Weapons Can Change Foreign Policy,” (International Security, Summer 2015) has won the 2016 Patricia Weitsman Award for Outstanding International Security Studies Section Graduate Paper. The award will be presented at the 2016 International Studies Association Annual Convention in Atlanta, GA.
The Patricia Weitsman Award for Outstanding International Security Studies Section Graduate Paper recognizes the best graduate student paper on any aspect of security studies. The paper must have been given at the International Studies Annual Convention or the annual International Security Studies Section/International Security and Arms Control Conference.
In announcing Bell’s award, the Weitsman Award Committee praised his article:
Mark Bell’s paper, “Beyond Emboldenment: The Effects of Nuclear Weapons on State Foreign Policy,” proffers a new a typology that innovatively delineates the ways in which the acquisition of nuclear weapons can alter the foreign policy behavior of current and future nuclear states. He then demonstrates the utility of his argument by examining the “hard” case of Britain’s acquisition of nuclear weapons in the mid-1950s. This piece, which has since been published in the journal International Security, should help frame and inform how both scholars and policymakers think about the effects of the acquisition of nuclear weapons on state behavior.
Mark is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a research fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Listen to the Belfer Center's Author Chat podcast with Mr. Bell for a discussion on this article.
Keren Yarhi-Milo / In the Eye of the Beholder
Congratulations to Keren Yarhi-Milo, whose article “In the Eye of the Beholder: How Leaders and Intelligence Communities Assess the Intentions of Adversaries,” (International Security, Summer 2013) has won the 2014 Outstanding Article Award from the International History and Politics Section of the American Political Science Association (APSA).
Arman Grigoryan, “Selective Wilsonianism: Material Interests and the West’s Support for Democracy,” International Security, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Spring 2020), pp. 158–200, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00378.
Iain D. Henry, “What Allies Want: Reconsidering Loyalty, Reliability, and Alliance Interdependence,”
International Security, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Spring 2020), pp. 45–83, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00375.
Reviewer: Luis Simón
Andrew Payne, “Presidents, Politics, and Military Strategy: Electoral Constraints during the Iraq War,” International Security, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Winter 2019/20), pp. 163–203, doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00371.
Reviewer: Benjamin O. Fordham
Brendan Rittenhouse Green and Austin Long, “Conceal or Reveal? Managing Clandestine Military Capabilities in Peacetime Competition,” International Security, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Winter 2019/20), pp. 48–83, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00367.
Sheena Chestnut Greitens, Myunghee Lee, and Emir Yazici, “Counterterrorism and Preventive Repression: China’s Changing Strategy in Xinjiang,” International Security, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Winter 2019/20), pp. 9–47, doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00368.
Reviewer: Jérôme Doyon
Fiona S. Cunningham and M. Taylor Fravel, “Dangerous Confidence? Chinese Views on Nuclear Escalation,” International Security, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Fall 2019), pp. 61–109, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00359.
Reviewer: Andrew W. Reddie
Ketian Zhang, “Cautious Bully: Reputation, Resolve, and Beijing’s Use of Coercion in the South China Sea,” International Security, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Summer 2019), pp. 117–159, doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00354.
Reviewer: Audrye Wong
M.E. Sarotte, “How to Enlarge NATO: The Debate inside the Clinton Administration, 1993–95,” International Security, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Summer 2019), pp. 7–41, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00353.
Reviewer: Joe Burton
Eliza Gheorghe, “Proliferation and the Logic of the Nuclear Market,” International Security, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Spring 2019), pp. 88–127, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00344.
Reviewer: Bryan R. Early
Deborah Jordan Brooks, Stephen G. Brooks, Brian D. Greenhill, and Mark L. Haas, “The Demographic Transition Theory of War: Why Young Societies Are Conflict Prone and Old Societies Are the Most Peaceful,” International Security, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Winter 2018/19), pp. 53–95, doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00335.
Reviewer: Richard Cincotta
Christopher Clary and Vipin Narang, “India’s Counterforce Temptations: Strategic Dilemmas, Doctrine, and Capabilities.” International Security Vol. 43, No. 3 (Winter 2018/19), pp. 7–52,doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00340.
Reviewer: Mahesh Shankar
Michael Beckley, “The Power of Nations: Measuring What Matters,” International Security, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Fall 2018), pp. 7–44, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00328.
Reviewer: Robert J. Reardon
Oriana Skylar Mastro, “Conflict and Chaos on the Korean Peninsula: Can China’s Military Help Secure North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons,” International Security, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Fall 2018), pp. 84–116, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00330.
Reviewer: Terence Roehrig
Matthew Adam Kocher, Adria K. Lawrence, and Nuno P. Monteiro, “Nationalism, Collaboration, and Resistance: France under Nazi Occupation,” International Security, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Fall 2018), pp. 117–150, doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00329.
Reviewer: Peter Liberman
Reid B.C. Pauly, “Would U.S. Leaders Push the Button? Wargames and the Sources of Nuclear Restraint,” International Security, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Fall 2018), pp. 151–192, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00333.
Reviewer: Jan Ludvik
James M. Acton, “Escalation through Entanglement: How the Vulnerability of Command-and-Control Systems Raises the Risks of Inadvertent Nuclear War,” International Security, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Summer 2018), pp. 56–99, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00320.
Reviewer: Vincent A. Manzo
Aqil Shah, “Do U.S. Drone Strikes Cause Blowback? Evidence from Pakistan and Beyond,” International Security, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Spring 2018), pp. 47–84, doi.org/10.1162/isec_a_00312.
Reviewer: Ashan I. Butt
David Shambaugh, “U.S.-China Rivalry in Southeast Asia: Power Shift or Competitive Coexistence?” International Security, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Spring 2018), pp. 85–127, doi:10.1162/isec_a_00314.
Eric Heginbotham and Richard J. Samuels, “Active Denial: Redesigning Japan’s Response to China’s Military Challenge,” International Security, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Spring 2018), pp.128–169, doi:10.1162/isec_a_00313.
Jennifer Lind and Daryl G. Press, “Markets or Mercantilism? How China Secures Its Energy Supplies,” International Security, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Spring 2018), pp. 170–204, doi:10.1162/isec_a_00310.
All reviewed by Priscilla Roberts
Barbara F. Walter, “The Extremist’s Advantage in Civil Wars,” International Security, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Fall 2017), pp. 7–39, doi:10.1162/ISEC_a_00292.
Reviewer: Daniel Krcmaric
Amanda J. Rothschild, "Rousing a Response: When the United States Changes Policy toward Mass Killing," International Security, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Fall 2017), pp. 120–154, doi:10.1162/ISEC_a_00295.
Reviewer: Debbie Sharnak
Jacqueline L. Hazelton, "The 'Hearts and Minds' Fallacy: Violence, Coercion, and Success in Counterinsurgency Warfare," International Security, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Summer 2017), pp. 80–113.
Reviewers: David H. Ucko and Jason E. Fritz
Reply by Jacqueline L. Hazelton
Caitlin Talmadge, "Would China Go Nuclear? Assessing the Risk of Chinese Nuclear Escalation in a Conventional War with the United States," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Spring 2017), pp. 50–92.
Reviewer: Nicola Leveringhaus
Rebecca Slayton, "What Is the Cyber Offense-Defense Balance? Conceptions, Causes, and Assessment," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Winter 2016/17), pp. 72–109.
Joseph S. Nye Jr., "Deterrence and Dissuasion in Cyberspace," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Winter 2016/17), pp. 44–71.
Reviewer: Brandon Valeriano
Alexander B. Downes and Lindsey A. O’Rourke, "You Can’t Always Get What You Want: Why Foreign Imposed Regime Change Seldom Improves Interstate Relations," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Fall 2016), pp. 43–89.
Keren Yarhi-Milo, Alexander Lanoszka, and Zack Cooper, "To Arm or to Ally? The Patron’s Dilemma and the Strategic Logic of Arms Transfers and Alliances," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Fall 2016), pp. 90–139.
Reviewer: Michael McKoy
Stephen Biddle and Ivan Oelrich, "Future Warfare in the Western Pacific: Chinese Antiaccess/Area Denial, U.S. AirSea Battle, and Command of the Commons in East Asia," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Summer 2016), pp. 7–48.
Charles L. Glaser and Steve Fetter, "Should the United States Reject MAD? Damage Limitation and U.S. Nuclear Strategy toward China," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Summer 2016), pp. 49–98.
Both reviewed by James J. Wirtz
Walter C. Ladwig III, "Influencing Clients in Counterinsurgency: U.S. Involvement in El Salvador’s Civil War, 1979–1992," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Summer 2016), pp. 99–146.
Reviewer: David H. Ucko
Daniel Bessner and Nicolas Guilhot, "How Realism Waltzed Off: Liberalism and Decisionmaking in Kenneth Waltz's Neorealism," International Security, Vol. 40, No. 2 (Fall 2015), pp. 87–118.
Reviewers: Stephen Walt, Campbell Craig, William Inboden, Robert Jervis, and Robert Vitalis
Francis Gavin, "Strategies of Inhibition: U.S. Grand Strategy, the Nuclear Revolution, and Nonproliferation," International Security, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Summer 2015), pp. 9–46.
Or Rabinowitz and Nicholas L. Miller, "Keeping the Bombs in the Basement: U.S. Nonproliferation Policy toward Israel, South Africa, and Pakistan," International Security, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Summer 2015), pp. 47–86.
Mark S. Bell, "Beyond Emboldenment: How Acquiring Nuclear Weapons Can Change Foreign Policy," International Security, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Summer 2015), pp. 87–119.
Reviewers: Thomas Maddux, Hal Brands, Julia M. Macdonald, Leopoldo Nuti, and Elisabeth Roehrlich
Max Paul Friedman and Tom Long, "Soft Balancing in the Americas: Latin American Opposition to U.S. Intervention, 1898-1936," International Security, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Summer 2015), pp. 120–156.
Reviewer: Christopher Darnton
Max Paul Friedman and Tom Long reply.
Michael Beckley, "The Myth of Entangling Alliances," International Security, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Spring 2015), pp. 7-48.
Reviewer: Jennifer Lind
Gene Gerzhoy, "Alliance Coercion and Nuclear Restraint: How the United States Thwarted West Germany’s Nuclear Ambitions," International Security, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Spring 2015), pp. 91-129.
Reviewer: Nicholas Miller
Jon R. Lindsay, "The Impact of China on Cybersecurity: Fiction and Friction," International Security, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Winter 2014/15), pp. 7-47.
Reviewer: Xiaoyu Pu
Sebastian Rosato, "The Inscrutable Intentions of Great Powers," International Security, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Winter 2014/15), pp. 48-88.
Reviewers: Brandon Yoder and Kyle Haynes
Jaganath Sankaran, "Pakistan’s Battlefield Nuclear Policy: A Risky Solution to an Exaggerated Threat," International Security, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Winter 2014/15), pp. 118-151.
Reviewer: Christopher Clary
Llewelyn Hughes and Austin Long, "Is There an Oil Weapon? Security Implications of Changes in the Structure of the International Oil Market," International Security, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Winter 2014/15), pp. 152-189.
Reviewer: Jeff Colgan
Gaurav Kampani, "New Delhi's Long Nuclear Journey: How Secrecy and Institutional Roadblocks Delayed India's Weaponization," International Security, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Spring 2014), pp. 79-114.
Reviewer: Jayita Sarkar, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
Reply by Gaurav Kampani
Alexander B. Downes and Jonathan Monten, "Forced to be Free? Why Foreign-Imposed Regime Change Rarely Leads to Democratization," International Security,Vol. 37, No. 4 (Spring 2013), pp. 90-131.
Reviewer: Mark Peceny, University of New Mexico
Stephen Brooks, G. John Ikenberry, and William Wohlforth, "Don’t Come Home, America: The Case against Retrenchment," International Security, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Winter 2012/2013), pp. 7–51.
Reviewer: Colin Dueck, George Mason University
Benjamin S. Lambeth, "Israel’s War in Gaza: A Paradigm of Effective Military Learning and Adaptation," International Security, Vol. 37 No. 2 (Fall 2012), pp. 81-118; andJerome Slater, "Just War Moral Philosophy and the 2008-09 Israeli Campaign in Gaza,"International Security, Vol. 37 No. 2 (Fall 2012), pp. 44-80.
Reviewer: Jeremy Pressman, University of Connecticut
Brendan Rittenhouse Green, "Two Concepts of Liberty: U.S. Cold War Grand Strategies and the Liberal Tradition," International Security, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Fall 2012), pp. 9–43.
Reviewer: Paul C. Avey
Stephen Biddle, Jeffrey Friedman, and Jacob Shapiro, "Testing the Surge: Why Did Violence Decline in Iraq in 2007?" International Security, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Summer 2012), pp. 7–40.
Reviewer: Austin Long
Patrick B. Johnston, "Does Decapitation Work? Assessing the Effectiveness of Leadership Targeting in Counterinsurgency Campaigns," International Security, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Spring 2012), pp. 47–79; and Bryan C. Price, "Targeting Top Terrorists: How Leadership Decapitation Contributes to Counterterrorism," International Security, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Spring 2012), pp. 9–46.
Reviewer: Jenna Jordan, Georgia Institute of Technology
Paul C. Avey, "Confronting Soviet Power: U.S. Policy during the Early Cold War,"International Security, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Spring 2012), pp. 151–188.
Reviewer: Joseph M. Siracusa, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Australia
Nuno Monteiro, "Unrest Assured: Why Unipolarity is Not Peaceful," International Security, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Winter 2011/12), pp. 9–40.
Reviewer: William C. Wohlforth, Dartmouth College
David Ekbladh, "Present at the Creation: Edward Mead Earle and the Depression-Era Origins of Security Studies," International Security, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Winter 2011/12), pp. 107–141.
Reviewer: Robert Vitalis, University of Pennsylvania
Bruce W. Bennett and Jennifer Lind, "The Collapse of North Korea: Military Missions and Requirements," International Security, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Fall 2011), pp. 84–119.
Reviewer: Brendan M. Howe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul
Paul K. MacDonald and Joseph M. Parent, "Graceful Decline? The Surprising Success of Great Power Retrenchment," International Security, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Spring 2011), pp. 7–44.
Reviewer: Stephen R. Rock, Vassar College
Michael S. Gerson, "No First Use: The Next Step for U.S. Nuclear Policy," International Security, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Fall 2010), pp. 7–47.
Reviewer: Joshua Rovner, U.S. Naval War College
John M. Schuessler, "The Deception Dividend: FDR’s Undeclared War," International Security, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Spring 2010), pp. 133–165.
Reviewer: Marc Trachtenberg, University of California, Los Angeles
Francis J. Gavin, "Same As It Ever Was: Nuclear Alarmism, Proliferation, and the Cold War," International Security, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Winter 2009/10), pp. 7–37.
Reviewer: John Mueller, Ohio State University
A cumulative index of all articles published in International Security is provided below as an Excel document.
Cumulative Index for International Security, through Vol. 46, No. 3 (Winter 2021/22)