The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Fidel Sendagorta was Director General for North America, Asia and the Pacific at the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 2015 to 2018. In 2014, he was Secretary General of the Spain-US Council. He was Ambassador to Egypt from October 2010 to May 2014. Previously, he was Director General for the Mediterranean, Maghreb and the Middle East (2008-2011), Ambassador at large for Mediterranean Affairs (2007-2008) and Director of the Office for Analysis at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He was the Rafael del Pino-MAEC Fellow with the Project on Europe and the Transatlantic Relationship from September 2018-June 2019.
A diplomat since 1984, he has served in several diplomatic posts at the Embassies of Spain in Tokyo, Havana and Rabat, as well as at the Permanent Representation of Spain to the European Union in Brussels. At the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he also was Advisor to the Secretary of State for International Cooperation and Latin America from 1991 to 1993 and was Deputy Director General at the Minister´s Office from 1993 to 1996.
Mr. Sendagorta holds a Law Degree from the Complutense University of Madrid and a Diploma on International Studies from the Diplomatic School of the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2003 to 2008 he lectured at the Diplomatic School and published the essay “Europe at the twilight: decline or revival?” (Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid 2007). In addition, he is a member of the Scientific Council of the Elcano Royal Institute for International and Strategic Studies.