Journal Article - International Security
How Civil Wars End: The International System, Norms, and the Role of External Actors
Historically, most civil wars have ended with the military defeat of the losing side. In the 1990s, by contrast, civil wars usually ended with a negotiated settlement. What accounts for this anomaly? Over the past several decades, dominant international norms have determined how civil wars are most likely to conclude. Understanding this dynamic could help policymakers better evaluate how to end such wars.
Lise Morjé Howard and Alexandra Stark, "How Civil Wars End: The International System, Norms, and the Role of External Actors," International Security, Vol. 42, No. 3 (Winter 2017/18), pp. 127–171, doi:10.1162/ISEC_a_00305.
Analysis & Opinions - Foreign Policy
Analysis & Opinions - BBC News
Book Chapter - Routledge
In the Spotlight
Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School
Analysis & Opinions - Agence Global
Discussion Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School