Journal Article - Quarterly Journal: International Security
What Is the Cyber Offense-Defense Balance? Conceptions, Causes, and Assessment
Does cyberspace favor the offense, as many analysts and policymakers claim? Three factors undermine any cyber offensive advantage, as demonstrated in a cost-benefit analysis of the Stuxnet operation against Iran. First, any measurement of the offense-defense balance must consider a cyber operation’s value as well as its cost to both sides. Second, organizational capabilities play a significant role in determining the balance. Third, offensive advantages decline when attackers target physical infrastructure rather than information networks.
Rebecca Slayton, "What Is the Cyber Offense-Defense Balance? Conceptions, Causes, and Assessment," International Security, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Winter 2016/17), pp. 72–109.
Book - Random House/Crown
Analysis & Opinions - The New York Times
Analysis & Opinions - Lawfare
In the Spotlight
Magazine Article - Foreign Affairs
Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School
Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School