The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Wake Smith is a Lecturer in the Yale School of the Environment, where he teaches a graduate level course on climate engineering. He is also a Research Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School. His book Pandora’s Toolbox: The Hopes and Hazards of Climate Intervention was published by Cambridge University Press in March 2022. He has published papers on the aeronautics, costs, and governance of solar geoengineering and developed preliminary designs for high altitude research aircraft. He previously served as Chairman and President of Pemco World Air Services, Chief Operating Officer of Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings, and President of the flight training division of The Boeing Company. He holds a BA from Yale and an MBA from Harvard.