The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Pakistan's nuclear program originally had a single purpose — that of countering India's nuclear weapons. But these weapons now serve multiple purposes and new nuclear doctrines are replacing old ones. The evolution of Pakistan's nuclear thinking shall be discussed within the context of its changed — and still changing — political, social and economic situation.
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