The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Prof. Jaap de Hoop Scheffer is the Peter Kooijmans Chair for Peace, Law and Security at Leiden University’s School of International Politics. Prior to this position he served as the 11th Secretary General of NATO from 2004 – 2009 and Chairman of the North Atlantic Council.
He was a Member and Deputy Chairman of the Netherlands Atlantic Commission and served on the board of the Foundation on Interethnic Relations, a think-tank supporting the work of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. He also served on the board of Leiden Institute of Higher Professional Education, chaired the Netherlands Council for Trade Promotion (NCH), and was on the advisory board of Amsterdam Nyenrode Law School.
In 2002, he was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in the first Balkenende government and reappointed in 2003. He held the Chairman-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in 2003.
In October 2001, he resigned as leader of the parliamentary party and as the political leader of the Christian Democratic Alliance (CDA). November 2001 – May 2002 he chaired the House Permanent Committee on Foreign Affairs. He served as deputy leader of the CDA parliamentary party in the House of Representatives from December 1995 – March 1997 when he was elected leader. From 1986 – 1994 he was a member of the Parliamentary Assemblies of the Council of Europe and the Western European Union (WEU). In 1990, during the Gulf crisis, he served as WEU rapporteur on the consequences of the invasion of Kuwait and continuing operations in the Gulf region. From 1994 – 1997 he was a member of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly.
From 1989 – 1994 he chaired the Standing Committee on Development Cooperation. He served as deputy leader of the CDA parliamentary party in the House of Representatives from 1995 to 1997, when he was elected leader. Mr. De Hoop Scheffer was elected to the House of Representatives of the States General for the CDA in 1986. He became the party’s spokesperson on foreign policy (as well as asylum and refugee policy and European justice matters) in the House and served on the Standing Committees on Justice, European Affairs and Defense.
From 1974 – 1976 he performed his military service in the Royal Netherlands Air Force and was discharged as a reserve officer. After completing his secondary education, he studied law at Leiden University (1974).
Prof. Dr. Jouke de Vries was appointed professor of Public Administration at Leiden University and as Scientific Director of Campus, Leiden University – The Hague. In 2011 he was designated as Dean of the Campus , Leiden University – The Hague. He is also the founder of the Leiden University College (LUC), which is the international honors college of Leiden University. De Vries also started the Centre for Professional Learning, which provides post-academic education and trainings for Dutch diplomats, civil servants and government trainees. Prof Dr. de Vries is doing research in the field of politics, political-administrative relations, public budgeting and multilevel governance.
De Vries is doing research in the field of politics, political-administrative relations, public budgeting and multilevel governance. He studied political science at the University of Amsterdam (1960) and got his doctorate degree in 1989 from the Institute of Public Administration at Leiden University.