The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
Alexandre Strapasson is a Belfer Center Fellow in Agriculture and Energy Policy at Harvard Kennedy School, working on the agriculture-energy-water nexus and sustainable bioenergy futures. He is also an Honorary Research Fellow at Imperial College London and a Visiting Lecturer at IFP School in Paris. He is originally from Brazil and has been working on energy and environmental science for many years, including as principal investigator and international consultant. Prior to these experiences, Alexandre was Director and Head of Department of Bioenergy (and Deputy Secretary) at the Brazil’s Ministry of Agriculture. He was also UNDP Consultant for energy and climate change at the Brazil’s Ministry of the Environment, participating in the UNFCCC negotiations. He is an Agricultural Engineer, holding an M.S. in Energy from the University of Sao Paulo (USP), and a Ph.D. in Energy and Environment from Imperial College London, with a Postdoc in Sustainability Science from Harvard University.