Book Chapter

Iraq, 1988-1990: Unexpectedly Heading toward War

| February 2007

"In mid-1989, President George H.W. Bush attended a meeting of the National Security Council to discuss the final draft of National Security Directive 26 (NSD-26), which defined U.S. policy toward the Persian Gulf...."

For more information on this publication: Belfer Communications Office
For Academic Citation: Karabell, Zachary and Philip D. Zelikow, with assistance from Ernest R. May, Kirsten Lundberg, and Robert D. Johnson. “Iraq, 1988-1990: Unexpectedly Heading toward War.” In Dealing with Dictators: Dilemmas of U.S. Diplomacy and Intelligence Analysis, 1945-1990. February 2007.