Reports & Papers

70 Items

Report

The Case for Increased Transatlantic Cooperation on Artificial Intelligence

    Authors:
  • Christie Lawrence
  • Sean Cordey
| August 2020

This report’s purpose is twofold: first, to inform policymakers and researchers about the current state of transatlantic AI efforts; and second, to recommend specific areas where transatlantic AI collaboration should be strengthened. Based on a comprehensive study of over 260 documents and reports covering the period from December 1997 to June 2020, we proposes more than 16 recommendations to increase US-EU AI collaboration across the entire AI ecosystem, as well as 9 recommendations for AI cooperation in the healthcare, environmental sciences, and defense sectors. Greater transatlantic efforts are needed to prevent the advancement of an AI vision that is adversarial and harmful to the wellbeing of the United States, the European Union, and allies.

In this April 22, 2020 photo, Gerard Bakulikira, right, and captain Tim Daghelet, left, both wear a Romware COVID Radius digital bracelet, which flashes red when people are too close to each other and creates a log of contacts. 

AP Photo/Virginia Mayo

Paper

Considerations for Digital Contact Tracing Tools for COVID-19 Mitigation: Recommendations for Stakeholders and Policymakers

Many are looking to digital contact tracing to assist reopening efforts, especially in light of reports that the U.S. could expect as many as 100,000 more deaths due to the virus by this Fall. This report focuses on how the U.S. might consider various proposed solutions.

We believe there are real benefits, challenges, and even potential harms in using digital solutions in the fight against COVID-19, but we must also acknowledge that the promise of any technology and associated systems to assist manual contact tracing efforts is largely hypothetical in the United States. There is not one catch-all answer; the truth is that technology is not a panacea, but it may be able to assist official efforts at an unprecedented time. However, no technological solution can succeed without two specific factors: public trust and buy-in, and rapid, widespread testing for everyone living in the U.S. To achieve the first, a number of factors must be addressed by officials in the states looking to implement digital solutions, and by technology developers.
 

A Tajik conscript looks out over remote stretches of northern Afghanistan from a border outpost near Khorog, Tajikistan.

Photo by David Trilling (c)

Report - Russia Matters

Jihadists from Ex-Soviet Central Asia: Where Are They? Why Did They Radicalize? What Next?

| Fall 2018

Thousands of radicals from formerly Soviet Central Asia have traveled to fight alongside IS in Syria and Iraq; hundreds more are in Afghanistan. Not counting the fighting in those three war-torn countries, nationals of Central Asia have been responsible for nearly 100 deaths in terrorist attacks outside their home region in the past five years. But many important aspects of the phenomenon need more in-depth study.

This research paper attempts to answer four basic sets of questions: (1) Is Central Asia becoming a new source of violent extremism that transcends borders, and possibly continents? (2) If so, why? What causes nationals of Central Asia to take up arms and participate in political violence? (3) As IS has been all but defeated in Iraq and Syria, what will Central Asian extremists who have thrown in their lot with the terrorist group do next? And (4) do jihadists from Central Asia aspire to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction? If so, how significant a threat do they pose and who would be its likeliest targets?

    G20 Dinner

    Kay Nietfeld/ Pool Photo via AP

    Paper - Cyber Security: A Peer-Reviewed Journal

    Normative Restraints on Cyber Conflict

    | Aug. 28, 2018

    Cyber security is a relatively new international problem. A decade ago, it received little attention as an international issue, but since 2013 the Director of National Intelligence has named cyber security risks as the biggest threat facing the USA. Although the exact numbers can be debated, various non-profit organisations have listed hundreds of state-sponsored attacks by a score of countries in the past decade. Many observers have called for laws and norms to manage the growing cyber threat. In this paper the author outlines the key normative restraints on cyber conflict. The author draws on the development of international norms in recent history to offer insights into the formation of normative restraints in the cyber realm.

    A person types on a laptop keyboard in North Andover, Mass, June 19, 2017. (AP Photo/Elise Amendola)

    AP Photo/Elise Amendola

    Paper - Cyber Security Project, Belfer Center

    (Why) Is There a Public/Private Pay Gap?

    | August 2018

    The government is facing a severe shortage of skilled workers, especially in information technology and cyber security jobs. The conventional wisdom in branches of policy and public administration is that the shortage is driven by low salaries that are not competitive for attracting top talent. Using longitudinal data on high skilled workers between 1993 and 2013, this paper shows that, if anything, government employees earn more than their private sector counterparts. Although government workers tend to earn less in the raw data, these differences are driven by the correlation between unobserved ability and selection into private sector jobs. These results are robust to additional data from the Census Bureau between 2005 and 2016. Instead, this paper shows that a more plausible culprit behind the worker shortage in government is a lack of development opportunities and poor management.

    Job One for Space Force

    NASA

    Report - Cyber Security Project, Belfer Center

    Job One for Space Force: Space Asset Cybersecurity

    | July 12, 2018

    When we think about critical infrastructure, the first assets that come to mind include the electric grid, water networks and transportation systems. Further unpacking the definition of critical infrastructure, we consider industries such as agriculture, defense or the financial sector. However, we rarely think about where the underlying systems that enable technology functionality across these sectors physically reside, who developed the technology, and who can access and manage that technology.

    U.S. Army Chief Warrant Officer 2 Michael Lyons, Joint Tactical Communications Office communications operator, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, looks through information on a workstation inside the Combined Air and Space Operations Center-Nellis during Red Flag 14-1 Feb. 5, 2014, at Nellis Air Force Base, Nev.

    U.S. Air Force photo/Senior Airman Brett Clashman

    Paper - Hoover Institution Press

    Strengths Become Vulnerabilities: How a Digital World Disadvantages the United States in its International Relations

      Authors:
    • Jack L. Goldsmith
    • Stuart Russell
    | June 05, 2018

    This essay seeks to explain why the United States is struggling to deal with the “soft” cyberoperations that have been so prevalent in recent years: cyberespionage and cybertheft, often followed by strategic publication; information operations and propaganda; and relatively low-level cyber disruptions such as denial-of-service and ransomware attacks.

    A view of the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center before remarks by President Barack Obama, on Tuesday, Jan. 13, 2015, in Arlington, Va.

    AP Photo/Evan Vucci

    Paper - Cyber Security Project, Belfer Center

    Understanding Federal Cybersecurity

      Author:
    • Kate Charlet
    | April 2018

    There are no silver bullets for federal cybersecurity. The system will retain its inherent complexity, necessitating close coordination and partnership. Federal cybersecurity will be an enduring mission, always evolving and changing to stay ahead of the threat. In other words, there is no “finish line”—only continual improvement, adaptation, and cooperation to secure the federal government and those it serves.

    Report - Centre for International Governance Innovation

    Getting beyond Norms: New Approaches to International Cyber Security Challenges

    | Sep. 07, 2017

    In March 2017, CIGI and the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Harvard Kennedy School brought together 28 academics, diplomats and other specialists for a one-day workshop in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to discuss and search for effective approaches to these and other international cyber security challenges. These essays provide a report on that workshop and the ideas that emerged.