2548 Items

Air Force Secretary Frank Kendall sits in the front cockpit of an X-62A VISTA aircraft

AP/Damian Dovarganes

Journal Article - Australian Journal of International Affairs

AI and the Decision to Go to War: Future Risks and Opportunities

| June 07, 2024

This short article introduces our Special Issue on 'Anticipating the Future of War: AI, Automated Systems, and Resort-to-Force Decision Making'. The authors begin by stepping back and briefly commenting on the current military AI landscape. They then turn to the hitherto largely neglected prospect of AI-driven systems influencing state-level decision making on the resort to force.

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Journal Article - Brookings Institution

Tunisia Abandons Two-State Solution; Courts Iran, China, and Russia

| June 05, 2024

The war in Gaza has accelerated a major shift in Tunisia’s foreign policy. One of the first Arab countries to advocate for a two-state solution, Tunisia has now abandoned it. That shift has left Tunisia more isolated geopolitically, prompting it to now court Iran, China, and Russia.

In this photo released by Russian Defense Ministry Press Service on Tuesday, May 21, 2024, Russian troops load an Iskander missile as part of drills to train the military for using tactical nuclear weapons at an undisclosed location in Russia

Russian Defense Ministry Press Service via AP

Journal Article - International Security

When Actions Speak Louder Than Words: Adversary Perceptions of Nuclear No-First-Use Pledges

| Spring 2024

Would the world be safer if the United States pledged to never use nuclear weapons first? Supporters say a credible pledge would strengthen crisis stability, decrease hostility, and bolster nonproliferation and arms control. But reactions to no-first-use pledges by the Soviet Union, China, and India suggest that adversaries perceive pledges as credible only when the political relationship between a state and its adversary is already relatively benign, or when the state’s military has no ability to engage in nuclear first use against the adversary. 

In this 1945 file photo, an area around the Sangyo-Shorei-Kan (Trade Promotion Hall) in Hiroshima is laid waste after an atomic bomb exploded within 100 meters of here.

AP Photo, File

Journal Article - International Security

When Foreign Countries Push the Button

| Spring 2024

Is there a norm against using nuclear weapons? Many policymakers believe that allied countries would severely condemn a state’s nuclear use. But survey research in the United States and India finds high absolute support for nuclear use, and that the public supports nuclear attacks by allies and strategic partners as much as those by the public’s own government. 

Armed with a double-barrelled shotgun, a young Turkish Cypriot leads women and children from the village of Ayios Sozomenos to another nearby large Turkish village following a gun battle between Greeks and Turks on Feb. 6, 1964.

AP Photo

Journal Article - International Security

Not So Innocent: Clerics, Monarchs, and the Ethnoreligious Cleansing of Western Europe

  • Şener Aktürk
| Spring 2024

Ethnic cleansing is not only a modern phenomenon. The medieval Catholic Church saw non-Christians as a threat and facilitated the ethnoreligious cleansing of Muslim and Jewish communities across Western Europe. Three conditions made this possible: The rising power of the papacy as a supranational religious authority; its dehumanization of non-Christians; and competition among Catholic Western European monarchs that left them vulnerable to papal-clerical demands to eradicate non-Christians. These findings revise our understanding twentieth- and twenty-first-century ethnic cleansing in places like Cambodia, Iraq, Myanmar, the Soviet Union, and Syria.

An open laptop on a messy desk. Papers covers the keyboard.

AP Photo/Rogelio V. Solis

Journal Article - International Security

Writing Policy Recommendations for Academic Journals: A Guide for the Perplexed

| Spring 2024

How can scholars write effective policy recommendations? Despite the potential importance of academic work to the policy debate, many scholars receive little training on why and how to make policy recommendations. To remedy this problem, here are steps to guide scholars as they begin developing policy recommendations for their articles. 

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Journal Article - Journal of Urban Affairs

Constructing Climate Change: Exploring How Cities Frame Climate Change in the Arctic

| May 23, 2024

Framing climate policy actions to be acceptable by various stakeholders in cities poses a critical task for urban governance. This paper draws on the literature on climate change discourse to analyze the content of framing and its reasoning in the two municipalities located in the Arctic: Murmansk, Russia, and Tromsø, Norway.

China's Aurora Observatory under construction in Iceland.

AP Photo/Dorothee Thiesing

Journal Article - The Polar Journal

Science Diplomacy for Stronger Bilateral Relations? The Role of Arctic Science in Iceland’s Relations with Japan and China

| May 19, 2024

This paper presents a comparative study which explores the history of the two Arctic research projects by China and Japan, as well as their execution and reception. The findings demonstrate that the Japanese case is a purely science-focused collaboration devoid of science diplomacy, while in the Chinese case, science has been used as a tool to facilitate more strategic diplomatic goals

Middle East Dialogues

Martha Stewart/Harvard University

Magazine Article - Harvard Kennedy School

Diving deep into disagreements on the Israeli-Hamas war at Harvard Kennedy School

| May 14, 2024

In a semester-long series, HKS Professor Tarek Masoud interviewed Middle East scholars and policymakers—from a Trump administration strategist to Palestinian intellectuals—on their vastly different views on the war.