Reports & Papers

1868 Items

U.S. Steel Granite City Works facility

AP Photo/Jeff Roberson

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

The Future of Green Hydrogen Value Chains: Geopolitical and Market Implications in the Industrial Sector

| Oct. 05, 2022

This report studies the role countries could play in future green hydrogen industrial markets, focusing on three key applications: ammonia, methanol, and steel production. To elucidate the impact of the transition to a low-carbon economy on energy value chains, Eicke and De Blasio propose an analytical framework to cluster countries into five groups based on the variables of resource endowment, existing industrial production, and economic relatedness.

An abstract image of locks and electronic wires

Adobe Stock

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

National Cyber Power Index 2022

| September 2022

In his Note to Readers of the 2022 National Cyber Power Index, Eric Rosenbach, Belfer Center Co-Director and former Chief of Staff and Assistant Secretary for the U.S. Department of Defense, writes: "With the challenges in the cyber domain only increasing, it is critical for analytical tools to also be available, presenting the full range of cyber power, and informing critical public debates today. The framework that the NCPI provides is one that allows policymakers to consider a fuller range of challenges and threats from other state actors. The incorporation of both qualitative and quantitative models, with more than 1000 existing sources of data and with 29 indicators to measure a state’s capability, is more comprehensive than any other current measure of cyber power."

The U.S. Homeland Security Department headquarters in northwest Washington is pictured on Feb. 25, 2015

AP Photo/Manuel Balce Ceneta, File


Continuous Compliance: Enhancing Cybersecurity for Critical Infrastructure by Strengthening Regulation, Oversight, and Monitoring

| August 2022

In this student research paper, Harvard Kennedy School student Julian Baker finds that transition from a point-in-time framework to a method of continuous compliance would raise the level of cybersecurity for critical infrastructure, making these essential services more reliable for the people relying on them. 

A worker is seen in a tugboat at the Port of Los Angeles on Nov. 10, 2021.

AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez, File

Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Never Breaking the Chain: The Economics and Politics of Creating an Effective National Supply Chain Strategy

| August 2022

The creation of a national supply chain strategy is crucial to responding to the challenge and merits specific attention from both policy and business leaders. This paper proposes specific government and business policy steps that would progress the US’s position on a more unified, strategic supply chain approach.

A recently planted African Mahogany tree grows at the Lufasi Park Lake Nora

AP/Sunday Alamba

Paper - Harvard Kennedy School

The Evolving Role of Greenhouse Gas Emission Offsets in Combating Climate Change

| August 2022

As governments, firms, and universities advance ambitious greenhouse gas emission goals, the demand for emission offsets — projects that reduce or remove emissions relative to a counterfactual scenario — will increase. Reservations about an offset’s additionality, permanence, double-counting, and leakage pose environmental, economic, and political challenges. The authors review the role of offsets in regulatory compliance, as an incentive for early action, and in implementing voluntary emission goals

The Indo-Pacific Region

USINDOPACOM Map (US State Dept.)

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Old Friends and New Horizons: Recalibrating American and French Indo-Pacific Strategy

France and the United States are the two Western countries with the highest sovereign interests in the Indo-Pacific region. Ensuring sovereign integrity and the security of their citizens are the first strategic priority of both nations. Furthermore, as longtime allies, Washington and Paris share mutually supporting interests that align their geopolitical security within the diplomatic, economic, and military spheres. Traditionally thought of as national interests, many now transcend borders to reflect inclusive interests of both Washington and Paris versus the exclusivity of a single nation-state. There is an increasingly common strategic vision that can bolster regional security by developing physical and digital connectivity to ensure a free, safe, and open Indo-Pacific. Shared strategic vision requires apt diagnosis of the state of play before consideration of potential policy prescriptions that might strengthen a unified approach to the Indo-Pacific. This report identifies the best approaches for the US, France, and the EU to support their Indo-Pacific allies within a framework of collaboration, coordination, and consultation, underpinned by common values.

teaser image

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

Technology Primer: Social Media Recommendation Algorithms

| Fall 2022

The use of social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and TikTok is increasingly widespread, currently amounting to billions of users worldwide. Social media companies deploy proprietary recommendation algorithms to automate the selection, ranking, and presentation of content on the platform’s “feed” or recommended content section, every time a user opens or refreshes the site or app. However, social media recommendation algorithms have a range of privacy, security, information quality, and psychological concerns for users. 

A successful approach to the regulation of social media recommendation algorithms will require a combination of government regulation, self governance, and external oversight to facilitate value alignment across these diverse actors and tackle the various challenges associated with this technology. This publication explores the technical components of social media recommendation systems, as well as their public purpose considerations. 

Ship navigates icecaps in the Arctic

Spanish Navy

Report - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

NATO and Climate Change: A Climatized Perspective on Security

| Aug. 18, 2022

NATO aspires to take the lead in understanding and adapting to the impact of climate change on security. The new Strategic Concept declares that climate change is a defining challenge of our time, with a profound impact on Allied security. Now, the Alliance and the Allies must “walk the talk” by preparing to face the emerging climate change-driven challenges and adapting their armed forces to the new climate conditions created by global warming. This paper will begin by answering the most pressing questions about NATO and climate change: Is climate change a security threat? Does climate security fit into NATO’s mission? And is NATO the best forum to
address climate change? It will then review NATO’s current actions on the climate, and finally make some proposals for the Alliance to implement a climatized perspective on security to climate-proof its assets and capacities and effectively accomplish its mission and tasks.

Plutonium-238 pellet under its own light.

Department of Energy via Wikimedia Commons

Report Chapter - International Panel on Fissile Materials

China's Fissile Material Report

| 2022

China launched its nuclear-weapon program in 1955 and began producing HEU and plutonium in 1964 and 1966, respectively. China exploded its first fission device (HEU-based) on October 16, 1964 and detonated its first hydrogen bomb on June 14, 1967. Since its first nuclear explosion, China has maintained a nuclear policy featuring a no-first-use pledge. China ratified the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty on March 9, 1992. China has kept secret information about its fissile materials and nuclear weapons stocks. It is estimated that China had about 360 warheads in 2020, slowly increasing over recent decades. The U.S. missile-defense program is a major driver of China’s nuclear-weapon modernization, which includes an expansion of its nuclear arsenal and more and improved intercontinental ballistic missiles. China conducted 45 nuclear tests from 1964 to 1996 at its Lop Nor site in Xinjiang. Its last nuclear test was in July 1996. In September 1996, China signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty but has not yet ratified it. Most likely, China is waiting to see if the U.S. will ratify.



Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

MIGHTY: Model of International Green Hydrogen Trade

| Aug. 03, 2022

The Model of International Green Hydrogen Trade (MIGHTY) is an optimization model to investigate renewable hydrogen production, consumption, and trade between countries. MIGHTY supports strategic analysis by policymakers and investors about the potential roles that countries and regions will play in future renewable hydrogen markets. This paper introduces the model and describes the model formulation.